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ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at adapting banknotes security features on Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents in order to protect them against counterfeiting. This aim was achieved through the following objectives: 1. to study banknote security features for onward adaptation on Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents. 2. To redesign some of the Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents by introducing multifarious security features on them. Primary data were collected based on an experimental research design and purposive sampling technique. Responses from the questionnaire were based on liker’s 5-pointscale. For the purpose of this study, purposive sampling technique was used. The main reason for using purposive sampling technique was to enable the researcher focus on particular characteristics of the population that are of interest. For this reason, the researcher x-rayed 86 different banknote security features globally, out of which 15 were selected for adoption on Ahmadu Bello University sensitive documents. Additionally, a total number of the 49 copies of questionnaire for printers and graphics designers were distributed to the top five security printing companies in Nigeria. Simple percentage and frequencies was used to analyze the data collected via the questionnaires. The studio work procedures are based on the following headings. They are exploration, developmental and production stages respectively. This study revealed that most of the valuable paper documents in Nigeria have little or no security features on them especially in the area of ink and paper. Moreover, banknote remain the most secured valuable paper document all over the world, the following banknote security components such as; paper, non-commercially available security ink, design and printing technique can easily be adopted on Ahmadu Bello University’s Sensitive documents for protection against forgery and counterfeiting.. These menaces have brought a great setback to national development. For this reason, there is need for serious and urgent efforts from graphic designers, researchers, indigenous ink producers, in-house paper mill companies and security printing industries to jointly tackle this ugly phenomenon for Nigeria to move forward. Finally, it’s recommended that Graphic designers, researchers, indigenous ink producers, in-house paper mill companies and security printing companies should jointly tackle the ugly phenomenon of forgery and counterfeiting for Nigeria to move forward. Moreover, courses on forgery and counterfeiting, piracy, faking, documents theft, security features, ink production, and paper security should be introduced to graphic designers and printers to take care of the present technological development.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. i
Declaration ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii
Certification …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii
Dedication ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………………………………………………………v
Table of Contents …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xii
List of Figures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xiv
List of Plates …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xvii
List of Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………………………… xviii
Operational Definition of Terms ……………………………………………………………………………….. xix
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………xx
CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Statement of the Problem …………………………………………………………………………………..3
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study ………………………………………………………………………..5
1.4 Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.5 Scope of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………………6
1.6 Delimitation of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………..6
1.7 Justification of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………..6
1.8 Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………..7
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CHAPTER TWO : REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..8
2.1 Forgery and Counterfeit …………………………………………………………………………………….9
2.1.1 Pseudo document ……………………………………………………………………………………………..9
2.1.2 Camouflage documents ……………………………………………………………………………………..9
2.2 Counterfeit and Forgery of the Ahmadu Bello University’s Sensitive Documents…..10
2.3 Online Forgery ……………………………………………………………………………………………….11
2.4 Origin of Paper Money (Banknote) …………………………………………………………………..14
2.4.1 Coins Money ………………………………………………………………………………………………….16
2.4.2 First portrait on Coins ……………………………………………………………………………………..17
2.4.3 First Paper Money Banknote (Running Cash) …………………………………………………….18
2.4.4 Card money ……………………………………………………………………………………………………20
2.4.5 Pay to Bearer (Betaalt aan toonder) …………………………………………………………………..20
2.4.6 19th Century’s Banknotes …………………………………………………………………………………21
2.4.7 The Emergence of Portraiture on Banknotes (1920-1995) ……………………………………24
2.4.8 Non Portraiture Banknotes ……………………………………………………………………………….25
2.4.9 The Movement to Abandon Portraits …………………………………………………………………26
2.4.10 Synthetic (Polymer) Banknotes ………………………………………………………………………..29
2.5 Banknote Design …………………………………………………………………………………………….37
2.5.1 Security Components of Banknote ……………………………………………………………………37
2.5.2 Banknote Design Software ………………………………………………………………………………40
2.5.3 Top 10 Global Banknote Security Printing Companies ………………………………………..43
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2.6 Ink ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..47
2.6.1 Oil Based Printing Ink …………………………………………………………………………………….48
2.6.2 Printing colour ……………………………………………………………………………………………….48
2.7 Paper …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….48
2.7.1 The origin of paper………………………………………………………………………………………….49
2.7.2 Paper Making Process ……………………………………………………………………………………..49
2.7.3 Paper properties and characteristics …………………………………………………………………..51
2.7.4 Banknote Security Paper (Bill Paper) ………………………………………………………………..51
2.8 Security Features …………………………………………………………………………………………….53
2.8.1 Watermark……………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
2.8.2 Printing Process ……………………………………………………………………………………………..54
2.8.3 Origin of printing in Nigeria …………………………………………………………………………….55
2.8.4 Printing of banknote ………………………………………………………………………………………..56
2.8.5 Types of printing …………………………………………………………………………………………….56
2.9 Theoretical Framework ……………………………………………………………………………………64
2.9.1 Differential Association Theory ……………………………………………………………………….64
CHAPTER THREE : METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………68
3.1 Research Design……………………………………………………………………………………………..68
3.2 Population of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………68
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure ……………………………………………………………….69
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3.4 Materials ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….70
3.5 Instrumentation ………………………………………………………………………………………………70
3.6 Instrument Validity and Reliability Test …………………………………………………………….70
3.7 Pilot Study ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..71
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection ………………………………………………………………………….71
3.9 Studio Work …………………………………………………………………………………………………..71
3.9.1 Exploratory Stage……………………………………………………………………………………………72
3.9.2 Developmental Stage ………………………………………………………………………………………82
3.9.3 Experimental Stage …………………………………………………………………………………………91
CHAPTER FOUR : DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………92
4.1 Procedure for Analyzing Data ………………………………………………………………………….92
4.2 Response Rate ………………………………………………………………………………………………..92
4.3 Research Question 1 ……………………………………………………………………………………….96
4.4 Research Question 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………….99
4.5 Research Question 3 ……………………………………………………………………………………..102
4.6 Research Question 4 ……………………………………………………………………………………..104
4.7 Major Findings ……………………………………………………………………………………………..104
CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………….106
5.1 Summary of Major Findings …………………………………………………………………………..106
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5.2 Discussion of Key Findings ……………………………………………………………………………107
5.3 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………..108
5.4 Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………109
5.5 Contributions to Knowledge …………………………………………………………………………..110
5.6 Suggestions for further research ……………………………………………………………………..110
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………112
Appendices …………………………………………………………………………………………………..117

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
The advent of computer, direct imaging, desktop publishing and computerized image system that produces excellent color jobs make forgery and counterfeiting of sensitive paper documents easier and rampant. Today in Nigeria, counterfeiting and forgery of sensitive paper documents such as banknotes, certificates of occupancy, cheque books, statement of results, cash receipt, identity cards, letterhead papers, drivers’ license, school certificates, passports, tamper-evident labels, stock certificates, postage stamps and so forth are on the increase.
The crime of Banknote counterfeiting is as old as making of Banknote itself (Giesecke & Devrient, 2015). In order to minimise the menace of forgery and counterfeiting of valuable paper documents, security features are developed by security printers and banknote paper makers. Banknote Security features can be classified into two types; that which can be seen by naked eyes and others that require the use of equipment like magnifying glass, Ultra Violet lamp, Infra-red viewer and so on.
According to Manisha and Gupta (2016) “most of the modern banknote consists of the following security features paper quality, security thread, gradient colouring, intaglio printing, UV glowing, micro texts, anti-copying mark, watermarks, infrared glowing and so forth”. The study attempts to explore various anti-counterfeit methods and materials for adaptation on Ahmadu Bello University sensitive documents in order to identify the most possible effective method for minimizing counterfeiting in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria and Nigeria as whole.
International Chamber of Commerce ( ICC, 2009), notes that “the international trade in counterfeit and pirated products costs the world economy about 250 billion US Dollars
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annually”. Moreover, this trend puts over 2.5 million legitimate jobs at risk in the G20 countries alone (ICC, 2009). Narrowing this to Nigeria, Global Intellectual Property Centre (GIPC) in the Guardian Newspaper (2015) notes that a yearly loss of N200 billion is attributed to forged and counterfeit products.
In line with the above, the immediate past Nigerian President, Dr. Goodluck Ebele Jonathan and his Former Nigerian Minister of finance, Dr. Ngozi Okonjo Iweala were at the formal presentation of new redesigned 100 Naira note to commemorate Nigeria’s centenary, where “urged the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) to start printing Nigerian banknotes and other sensitive paper documents locally” (Lukmon, in Punch Newspaper, 2014)
The concept of forgery, counterfeiting, piracy, faking, alteration, fraud, corruption and bribery are some of the global crimes which have received serious attention from the international community, governmental and non-governmental organizations (Dakyes, 2006). Unfortunately, these menaces have not been well addressed, especially in the third world countries like Nigeria, where the problem is becoming endemic every day. Forgery and counterfeiting are said to be an aspect of fraud which has become almost a complete way of life for Nigerians at both home and abroad Ladan, (2008). Today in Nigeria, it is hard to see an original product without seeing it’s counterfeit. Many Nigerians are seriously indicted for involvement in the menace. According to Bafarawa (2016), “Nigerian corruption starts from the grassroots, therefore 90 percent of Nigerians are corrupt”. For example, a good number of politicians forging to win elections, civil servants counterfeiting to mismanage public funds, students faking to get admission or scholarship, lecturers forging for promotion, pharmacists fabricating substandard drugs, businessmen importing pirated products, contractors also scamming tax documents, manufacturers are producing substandard products while traders retailing counterfeited products and so forth.
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Moreover, it is no more news that the 8th Nigerian senate standing order 2015 was speculated to have been forged by the senate leaders for their own selfish interest to win election to the Leadership of the house (Freedom Radio, 2015). Counterfeiting is being practiced all over the world for nefarious reasons, many different security printing techniques and materials have been used to protect valuable paper documents from forgery and counterfeiting. More recently, the present Minister of Finance, Mrs. Kemi Adeosun when she appeared before the Senate committee on finance to defend her 2016 budget, revealed that “over 23,000 ghost workers were exposed and most of them used forged or counterfeited paper documents to perpetrate this evil, this action alone helped the federal government of Nigeria to save over two billions Naira monthly”. Moreover, President Muhammadu Buhari on the 29th of May, 2016 (Democracy Day) in his speech authenticated this fact by corroborating that “the number of federal government of Nigeria ghost workers has increased to 42,000, which has helped the federal government of Nigeria recover over four billions Naira monthly from ghost workers’ salary” (Buhari, 2016 in Nigerian Television Authority ). These menaces have brought great setback to national development. For this reason, there is need for serious and urgent efforts from graphic designers, researchers, indigenous ink producers, in-house paper mill companies and security printing industries to jointly tackle this ugly phenomenon for Nigeria to move forward.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Authenticity is a virtue in any organization because it is the sign of sincerity, security, integrity, honor and morality. It is disturbing to know that an overwhelming number of Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents are counterfeited daily (A B U security unit, 2015).
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Daily Trust Newspaper of Saturday, June 11th 2011, reported, that “a lecturer with Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU), Bauchi, as well as Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai Niger state, Daniel Ishola Owaodemi, was found to be teaching for twelve years with fake Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Certificate”. (Olamiti, 2013) Similarly, Malam Tukur Mamu, the proprietor of the Desert Herald Newspaper, was accused of faking Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria’s Master’s Degree certificate. (Chukwumere, 2013).
Ibeh N. (2014) reported “a group of syndicate printers that specialize in counterfeiting valuable documents for a fee. West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and National Examinations Council (NECO) certificates cost N12, 000 only and can be provided in 30 minutes”. In a society like Nigeria where emphasis is laid on paper qualification rather than capability, this makes nonsense of the need to spend six years in secondary school and four years in university for what could be obtained instantly. The counterfeits look so genuine that one wonders if the certificate does not actually come from the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) Office into the hands of counterfeiters. (Ibeh N. (2014). to mention but a few. This problem arises as results of overwhelming number of Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents are counterfeited daily (A B U security unit, 2015).
Organized crime facilitated by forgery and counterfeiting of valuable paper documents by fraudsters constitute a source of major societal problems in Nigeria with attendant consequences such as; damage to all facets of Nigeria’s corporate existence, enormous loss of government revenue, undermining national development efforts, economic potential and political instability, erosion of efficiency and damage to national image (Dakyes, 2009).
Therefore, the problem of the study is to investigate forgery methods and protective measures required with a view to adapting them on Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents for their protection against counterfeiting.
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1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to adapt banknotes security features on Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents in order to protect them against counterfeiting.
In order to achieve the aim of this study the following objectives are set:
i. To study banknote security features for onward adaptation on Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents.
ii. Redesign some Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents by introducing multifarious security features on them.
iii. Carry out reliability test of the security features adapted on the Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents.
iv. Develop a body of knowledge in the area of security design, printing and paper document protection.
1.4 Research Questions
To conduct the investigation, the following research questions were raised:
i. How could the security features found on bank notes be adapted on Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents?
ii. How would Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents be redesigned by introducing multifarious security features on them?
iii. In what ways could reliability test be carried out on the adapted security features on Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents?
iv. How could a body of knowledge in the area of security printing and paper document protection be developed?
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1.5 Scope of the Study
In order to achieve reliable results for this study, the extent of this research covers and focuses its attention on the banknote security features for the protection of valuable paper documents against forgery and counterfeiting.
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
In order to conduct a comprehensive investigation and come out with findings that will be generally accepted and have both external and internal validity, the study is delimited to the redesigning of some Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents by adapting banknote security features on them, which include the following.
i. Ahmadu Bello University’s certificates
ii. Ahmadu Bello University’s identity card
iii. Ahmadu Bello University’s Admission letter
iv. Ahmadu Bello University’s letterhead paper
v. Ahmadu Bello University’s official receipt
1.7 Justification of the Study
There are several security features, materials and latest printing technologies on banknotes that can be adapted on Ahmadu Bello University’s sensitive documents for protection against forgery and counterfeiting. In spite of the knowledge of these banknotes security features, methods and materials, only few have been adapted for paper document protection in Nigeria. Therefore, the justification for this study lies in the fact that presently the researcher is unaware of any research effort in the immediate past or in recent time carried out in order to address the long-term problems of forgery and counterfeiting of Ahmadu Bello University valuable paper documents. It is also in the opinion of the researcher that if no such study like this is directed at this time in this institution, the
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problems will escalate beyond control. Moreover, this study will serve as a stimulus for our own indigenous security printing technologies, reducing unemployment, poverty, corruption, insecurity and enhance economic development. Buhari (2015) corroborate, this point,” noting that oil will no longer sustain Nigeria”, thus other sectors that could enhance the national economy need some attention.
1.8 Significance of the Study
i. This study constitutes a first step towards developing our own unique indigenous printing technology and opens it up for further research and development endeavours.
ii. This study serves as a channel to address the long-term problems of faking, and other related crimes in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, in particular, and Nigeria as a whole. Hence, Buhari (2015) notes the idea by saying “if Nigeria does not kill corruption, definitely corruption will kill Nigeria.”
iii. The study will explore and create potential opportunities for indigenous ink producers, colour chemist, graphic designers, in-house paper mill companies as well as security printing industries in Nigeria.
iv. The study will contribute to the number of literature available for research purpose.
v. The research will advance the frontiers of knowledge in the area of currency design, security printing, security design, paper document protection, product protection, piracy, counterfeiting, forgery, fraud, faking and alteration. At the same time, the full implementation of the outcome of this research will serve as a starting point for not only Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, but Nigeria as a whole to commence the design and printing of its own banknotes and other valuable paper documents by the use of indigenous security feature, ink, method and materials which will save billions of United State dollar spent on printing of sensitive paper documents outside the country.
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