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An Assessment Of Electronic Waste Management Disposal In Onitsha Main Market

This study was carried out on assessment of electronic waste management disposal in Onitsha main market. Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics which are destined for refurbishment, reuse, resale, salvage recycling through material recovery, or disposal are also considered e-waste. Informal processing of e-waste in developing countries can lead to adverse human health effects and environmental pollution. The study employs quantitative descriptive research design to examine electronic waste management disposal in Onitsha main market. The information used in this study was collected from both secondary and primary sources. These include existing or published records such as gazettes, books, journal, registers etc. Secondary sources are also second hand information collected from works done by other people relating to the research. For this study, secondary sourced information was sourced from published materials. The primary sources of data used in this work were collected through personal observation, personal interviews and direct observations methods. The stratified sampling method was used in this study to select the sample populations that were interviewed. A total of 400 questionnaires were administered in the study area. However, 365 questionnaire representing 92% were returned. It was found that bad disposal attitudes are prevalent in Onitsha main market. The study identified poor electronic waste disposal attitudes of the household as major impediment to efficient solid waste management system in Onitsha main market. Consequently, sanitary condition in the city has worsened, leading to indiscriminate disposal of refuse that have formed mountains in many parts of the city.

1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Statement of hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Limitation of the study
1.9 Organization of study
2.1 Concept of waste management
2.2 Concept of Electronic waste
2.3 Determinants electronic waste disposal habits
2.4 Electronic waste disposal attitudes
2.5 Recycling Activities
2.6 Re-use Activities
2.7 Laws/Regulations on Solid Waste Management in Nigeria
2.8 Waste Management Practices
2.9 Integrated Solid Waste Management Approach
2.10 Human toxicity of hazardous substances in e-waste
2.11 Environmental impacts of e-waste during treatment processes
2.12 Landfill disposal
3.1 Research design
3.2 Area of study
3.3 Sources of data
3.4 Population of the study
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Technique
3.5.2 Sampling procedures.
3.6 Reliability
3.7 Validity
3.8 Method of Data Collection
3.9 Method of data analysis
3.10 Ethical consideration
4.1: Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents
4.4 Test of hypotheses
4.5 Discussions
5.1 Summary of findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations

1.1 Background of the study
Electronic industry is the world’s largest and innovative industry for its kind. Every year tons of electronic items are shipped over oceans, however, after their usage time they are become a complex waste matter which consists of many hazardous heavy Iron, acids, toxic chemicals and non-degradable plastics. Many are dumped, burnt or exported to recyclers. However, about 75% of e-wastes are uncertain for their use or finding ways to use them which includes refurbishment, remanufacture and reuse their parts for repair etc. While others are junks occupying usable space at houses, apartments, firms and industries. Most e-recyclers were exporting the toxic materials such as leaded glass, circuit boards, and mercury lamps usually to China, Africa and India (Basel Action uploaded on 2013). Dismantling process takes much labor, in countries like China and some parts of India there are tones e-wastes junked and dismantled; dismantling is not only involve in unscrewing but also shredding, tearing and burning. The smoke and dust particle consists of carcinogens and other hazardous chemicals which causes severe inflammations and lesions including many respiratory and skin diseases. Circuits are burnt to hunt the valuable Iron such as gold, platinum cadmium but the wire coat of those consists of PVC and PCB which may produce erotic smoke, and carbon particles from the toners are carcinogens, they may lead to lung and skin cancer (Kevin et al., 2008).
The voluminous generation of e-waste threatened the waste treating agencies as it contains hazardous Iron (Heavy Iron and Persistent organic Pollutant) and inorganic and organic compounds : Lead(Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Tin (Sn), Antimony (Sb), Arsenic (As), Asbestos (As), Barium (Ba), Beryllium (Be), Chromium (Cr-vi), Nickel (Ni), Selenium (Se), Yttrium (Y), Zinc (Zn), BFRs, PCDD/F, PCB etc, which is 1% of the total weight of the equipment[EU, 2002a].The hazardous substances explode while handling, recycling, and recovery of the recyclable material from the e-waste in uncontrolled condition. The people engaged in this trade in developing Nations are severely affected as they are not aware about and also there is no infrastructure or finance intensive infrastructure to deal with this waste and simply people started rudimentary and primitive methods like- open burning of e-waste to get the Iron like Copper, Aluminium, Steel in the developing countries. This practice covers more than 90% of the waste generated either indigenously or imported for recycling or illegally received from different sources. It is a diverse and complex nature of waste contains non-hazardous compounds also: Copper, Aluminium, Plastic, Silver, Gold, palladium etc. These can be recovered from e-waste by suitable techniques. However, an international effort: Basel Convention- to stop the trans-boundary movement of hazardous waste had been made in 1989 (Basel Convention).
Due to the poverty some places in China such as city of Guangzhou still risking their health with e-waste full of used computers and television sets, according to the data received in 2007 about 70 % of e-waste of the world reaches China and the rest to Africa and India, due to their cheap labor they have become the world’s dumping station of e- waste, in Ghana about 20% of their population are working on e-waste; they use after reconditioning them (Basel Action uploaded on 2013). Poverty is the main reason for third world countries to consume e-wastes from Europe and USA.
Managing electronic waste (or e-waste) is one of the most rapidly growing pollution problems worldwide. New technologies are rapidly superseding millions of analogue appliances leading to their disposal in prescribed landfills despite potentially their adverse impacts on the environment. The consistent advent of new designs, ‘‘smart’’ functions and technology during the last 20 years is causing the rapid obsolescence of many electronic items. The lifespan of many electronic goods has been substantially shortened due to advancements in electronics, attractive consumer designs and marketing and compatibility issues. For example, the average lifespan of a new computer has decreased from 4.5 years in 1992 to an estimated 2 years in 2005 and is further decreasing (Widmer et al., 2017) resulting in much greater volumes of computers for either disposal or export to developing countries.
A new waste stream has been created by EOL (End of Life), Obsolete Electrical and Electronic Equipment discarded in abundance in the past in both developing and developed Nations as the technology is changing every day. A generic word E-waste is globally used for waste created this waste stream.
The e-waste offers a good business opportunity in terms of sale of second-hand electrical and electronic equipment as well fulfils the futuristic demand of recyclable material viz. components, Iron, plastics etc. (Widmer et al., 2017). In developed Nations, the environmental laws for the recycling, recovery and disposal are very stringent and the ratio of e-waste treatment cost to recovery of materials from e-waste is quite high.
As nowadays, globally the use of electrical and electronic equipment has increased many folds in the industrial, commercial and household sectors and made it a fast growing waste. Besides the toxic and hazardous attributes of e-waste; the most of the people are dumping of this e-wasted equipment in municipal waste bins in developing countries. There are many reasons behind the generation of a huge quantity of e-waste like globalization, transfer of technology, abrupt changes in technology, affordable price of new equipment with more features than old one, decreased life-span of equipment, illegal dumping of e-waste from developed countries, varieties and availability low cost equipment .Also, the useful life of all consumer electronic devices is short relatively, and decreasing due to rapid changes in equipment features and capabilities (Kang and Schoenung, 2004).
The electronic waste disposal problem calls for the study on determinants of electronic waste disposal attitude in other to address bad attitudes of the residents towards solid disposal Nigerian cities. This is because households generate a large amount of waste that is being experienced in our cities. Greater percentages of person constituting a cities population have their roots in the household. It is obvious that Onitsha is a commercial city and most of the dwellers engage in commercial activities. These in turn determine the level of their involvement in electronic waste disposal. This can be evidenced in their attitudes to their work and business activities. Most dwellers leave their Households early in morning and return later, this in turn affect their level of participation in disposal of household solid waste.
Moreover, pressure on available waste disposal facilities and their proximity to various household can be factors that determine disposal attitudes seen in Onitsha main market. It is obvious that the state of environment plays an important role in life of the dwellers of such environment. This in effect has some connections with the success of the commercial ventures the dwellers engage in. This is because good environment moulds the attitude of the dwellers toward healthy living
The indiscriminate dumping of refuse is a great concern because this can cause ill health or serve as a medium for harmful organisms to grow. Hence, this study will look into electronic waste management disposal in Onitsha main market, Anambra state.

1.2 Statement of the problem
Disposal of electronic wastes has become a major problem in Onitsha main market, Anambra state. The problem has increased with increase in the city’s population through natural birth, migration into the city and consistent increase in commercial, industrial and administrative activities. These makes it possible to sight heaps of solid waste in every part of the city that is not evacuated.
To stem this tide government have come up with some plans which includes setting up agencies that manages waste and monthly environmental sanitation exercise. In spite of these efforts the heaps of refuse dumps that disfigure the outlook of the city become so large that they constantly attract attentions. This problem has made the area to have bad image of a very dirty commercial city. It was this bad state of things that made the former governor of Anambra state Mr. Peter Obi to declare Onitsha a failed city. Moved by the seriousness to restore Onitsha from dirtiness, the governor mandated an environmental sanitation for every Saturday for many months for the traders and the residents. The outcome of the exercise did not significantly reduce the mountains of solid wastes and as a result government was forced to abandon the programs.
It is in the face of seen short comings of the regulatory agencies that a system in which there is a collective effort between the ANSEPA, Local Government Councils or Ministry of Environment and Private company which was put in place on a contractual basis, this arrangement has been experimented in many cities of the world (Savas, 2012). This method also operated in Onitsha at one time or the other, the current trend is between LARGA International limited, an electronic waste disposal firm and Anambra state Government under the integrated development strategy of the state (ANIDS). Yet a look at most of parts of Onitsha, suggests that the programme has not been effective in reducing the growth of solid waste.
Solution hither to, employed in solving the of electronic waste disposal attitudinal problems failed apparently because they did not look into the house hold attitudes on the disposal of solid waste. As this has not been thoroughly been studied and used in planning, execution and implementation of many of the electronic waste disposal projects.
It is in the face of numerous attempts at safe disposal of solid waste in Onitsha main market, that this work examined the determinants of electronic waste disposal attitudes in Onitsha with the focus on establishing the factors that determine electronic waste disposal attitudes.

1.3 Objectives of the study
⦁ Main objective
The main objective of the study is to establish the factors that determine electronic waste disposal attitudes in Onitsha main market, Anambra state.
⦁ Specific objectives
Specifically, the study sought to:
1. Examine the nature of electronic waste disposal in Onitsha.
2. Determine factors that influence electronic waste disposal attitude on electronic waste disposal in Onitsha.
3. Determine whether electronic waste disposal attitude differ among dwellers in Onitsha.
4. Examine the respondents perception on electronic waste disposal in Onitsha
5. To make recommendations for improving electronic waste disposal habit in Onitsha.

1.4 Research questions
The following research questions were drafted by the researcher to guide the execution of the study.
1. What are the natures of electronic waste disposed in Onitsha?
2. What are the factors that influence electronic waste disposal attitude in Onitsha?
3. What determines whether electronic waste disposal attitude differ among dwellers in Onitsha?
4. What are the household perceptions of electronic waste disposal in Onitsha?

1.5 Statement of hypotheses
H0: The nature of electronic waste disposal cannot be significantly identified and categorized.
H0: The factors that influence electronic waste disposal attitude cannot be significantly identified and categorized.
H0: Factors that influence electronic waste disposal attitude do not differ significantly among household.
H0: Residents perceptions on electronic waste disposal system do not differ significantly in Onitsha.

1.6 Significance of the study
There are several reasons for continuous research on waste problem at local, national and global levels. Firstly, the earth‘s natural resources are fast dwindling, hence the need to conserve the resources. Re-use and recycle are some of the conservation means for sustainable natural resource management, including municipal solid waste. This is the environmental justification for this study. Also, this study will provide evidence on the volume of wealth/job created from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) that can be used for future development planning in the area of employment generation. Evidence from other countries such as Germany, Australia and the US demonstrate how significant job creation at the local level has been achieved through high recycling rates, thus supporting new business formation (Mayor of London, 2003).
In terms of contribution to knowledge on electronic waste and urban environmental management, findings of the study will form a base knowledge for researchers interested in that area. It is hoped that this work will contribute to finding a sustainable way of handling electronic waste menace in Onitsha main market with adaptive implications for the whole country and beyond.

1.7 Scope of the study
This study assessed electronic waste management disposal in Onitsha. main market This work specifically identified the determinants of electronic waste disposal attitudes, among households in Onitsha main market.

1.8 Limitation of the study
The major limitations were encountered in the study. These include:
Fear of insecurity: This problem where encountered on my visit to Anambra state environmental protection Agency (ANSEPA). The officials of the agencies could not release the necessary information needed for the study and most of the low density residents denied me accessibility to their Houses.
Poor response: Some of the respondents responded poorly to the questionnaires. They failed to disclose full information on their income and ways they dispose their solid waste. Furthermore some respondents requested for money before they could fill the questionnaire thinking that the exercise is for business purposes.
Study area: Since the study was only carried out in only one province, the results may not be generalisable to the whole country.
Financial constraints: Financial constraints were also anticipated in the current study. Although the researcher received assistance from the bursary, it was not possible to carry out the study at national level.

1.9 Organization of study
This research work is divided into five chapters.
Chapter one contains introduction to the research work which summarizes background to the study. In this chapter, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, research hypothesis, research questions, scope of the study, and organization of the study are discussed extensively.
Chapter two of this research work is known as the review of related literature otherwise known as the literature review and the theoretical frame work, which reviews previous research work in the field of study and analysis of various principles relating to the research topic.
Chapter three is concerned with the research methodology. This discusses research design, the population size to be studied, sample size determination, sampling techniques applied , method of data analysis and interpretation, the statistical tools used in the analyzing the formulated hypothesis .
Chapter four of this research work is the data presentation, analysis and interpretation.
Chapter five summarizes the whole research project stating the findings useful conclusion and the recommendation and this constitute the concluding part of the research work.


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