AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study was on an assessment of government involvement in adult education programmes. The total population for the study is 200 staff of ministry of education in Ghana. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up heads of department, directors, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
1.1Background of the study
To build a society that is self-sufficient requires the mobilization of the uneducated, the poor and underdeveloped, many of whom have untapped potentials; and if they are fully developed will be of immense benefit not only to themselves but to the nation as a whole. On this premise the British and French governments promoted mass education in their colonies; their primary objective was to give the masses opportunity to participate in the conduct of their own affairs. The ultimate aim was to develop, among the masses, enlightened public opinion, to ensure, particularly civic education and the development of reasoned opinions on matters of local and national government rather than the parroting of a few people, or a lethargic acceptance of the status quo (Omolewa, 2017:16).
Similarly, one is literate when he has acquired the essential knowledge and skills which enable him to engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his group and community, and whose attainments in reading, writing and arithmetic make it possible for him to continue to use these skills towards his own and the community’s development. The concept of literacy should be understood as the ability to read, write and compute in any language and to an appreciable level. However, other bye-concepts are functional literacy, illiteracy and semi-illiteracy.
Functional literacy, according to Oduaran (2011), refers aptly to the ability to use the skill of reading, writing and computing in the acquisition of such information as would make the individual function more actively and beneficially in the economic, social, political and cultural activities of the community where he lives. Hence the ability of the individual to contribute to the development of the country lies in his ability to read and write. There cannot be meaningful development in a modern society where majority of the populace is illiterate. The implication therefore, is the scaling up of literacy programmes to be part of major national endeavor, even if it finds practical expression in a diversity of programme activities. The report of Human Development rates Nigeria as having the highest number of illiterates in the world. In agreement, The United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), discloses that, “there are about 31 million adults in Ghana, 85% of them under the age of 35 years, who can neither read nor write” (EFA, 2010). Despite the importance of education, to improve standard of living, Nigeria has one of the lowest literacy rates in the world, world map (2011).
The low level literacy partly accounts for the low level of development in Nigeria. Thus, a nation which undermines the contributions of the some of her citizens makes slow progress towards national development. The realization of organizational objectives depends largely on the quantity and quality of personnel (manpower) available in the organization and the degree of effectiveness in the utilization of available manpower. Commenting on this point, Imhabekhai (2014) advocates that it is imperative that management of any organization makes sufficient efforts in procuring and developing the needed manpower resources and pay attention to how well they are utilized. However, experience has shown that in most public agencies, greater interest is shown in the areas of manpower development and procurement or recruitment than in how effectively utilized are the available manpower resources.
The National Policy in Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN 2014:32) lists seven components of adult and non-formal education. These are functional literacy, remedial continuing, vocational, aesthetic, cultural and civic education for youths and adults outside the formal school system. At the same time the FRN (2014:25) outlines goals of mass literacy, adult and non-formal education as that which shall be to: Provide functional literacy and continuing education for adults and youths who have never had the advantage of formal education or who did not complete their primary education. These include the nomads, migrant families, the disabled and other categories or groups, especially the disadvantaged gender, Provide functional and remedial education for those young people who did not education, Provide education for different categories of completers of the formal education system in order to improve their basic knowledge and skills, Provide in-service on the job, vocational and professional training for different categories of workers and professionals in order to improve their skills, and Give the adult citizens of the country necessary aesthetic, cultural and civic education for public enlightenment.
Programmes are therefore designed and structured to meet the needs of adults and persons that did not acquire enough formal education, or none at all, as well as those that need to sustain learning for self-employment. It could be seen that adult education is neither just for persons who are desirous to read, write and communicate particularly in English nor for people who are advanced in age, it is a programme designed and aimed at adult persons and those who could not for one reason complete their education in a formal setting when they were young. The ultimate beneficiaries will be mainly young girls and women, youth and out-of-school children, and vulnerable populations and groups who have suffered from decades of prejudice, marginalization, discrimination and even exclusion, particularly in urban slums and rural areas. Adult education now involves the study of various disciplines such as economics, agriculture, history, hygiene, arts and crafts, in these ways; the adult population is involved in planning programmes so that they can gain practical skills for individual improvement and societal development.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Following the background given above, there is a great concern over the illiteracy rate in the world population, although 3rd world countries have experienced increase in literacy rate over the past few decades.
Illiteracy is a great hindrance to the promotion of national development. It is not only an obstacle to the social-economical and political transformation of the country, but its eradication will also quicken the tempo of development. Due to illiteracy many adult Ghanaian, especially the populace at the grass root level, are unable to participate meaningfully in the development process of the country.
It has been proven over time that Adult Education is a major tool for eradicating illiteracy and its adverse consequences, this might have led to the consideration given to it by the National Policy on Education, but apart from this consideration, its major loophole has been the non-chalant attitude shown to its government.
It is therefore, of paramount importance to address the possible consequences that will occur if the government continues to show minimal attention to adult literacy programmes in the State.
Firstly, its major consequence which would eventually birth others is the problem of illiteracy. (Osunde and Omoruyi, 1977) said “Illiteracy is undoubtedly a threat to progress and wellbeing of humanity”
The rise of illiteracy in the society would undoubtedly lead to poverty, sickness, backwardness, economical instability, corruption and related vices etc. Thus, it has been empirically established that literacy can increase the people’s participation in governance, development oriented activities and creates greater desire for accelerated national local development, the health and nutrition of the people is greatly enhance.
Therefore seeing that Adult Education is a means of adapting to changing circumstances and meeting the challenges of the day and thus ensuring that the society survives and thrives. Through the knowledge of these consequences, government should therefore increase their involvement in Adult Literacy programmes Ghana
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study sought to know the assessment of government involvement in adult literacy programmes. Specifically, the study sought to;
- Ascertain whether the adult literacy programmes can make adult learners to be resourceful.
- Ascertain whether the adult literacy programmes provide the participants with practical skills.
iii. Ascertain how government assessment or the skills acquired are being utilized or put into practice, by preparing and equipping the participants for wage employment or self-employment.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho1: Adult literacy programmes cannot make adult learners to be resourceful.
Ho: Adult literacy programmes can make adult learners to be resourceful
Ho2: Adult literacy programmes does not provide the participants with practical skills.
Ho: Adult literacy programmes provide the participants with practical skills.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study. The study will also serve as a reference to other researcher that will embark on the related topic
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers an assessment of government involvement in adult education programmes. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Adult: a grown up person, who has attained full maturity and is fully developed.
- Illiterate: An uneducated person, who lacks the ability to read or write.
- Literate: An educated person with competence in reading and writing.
- Adult education: This refers to the general enlightenment programme that is put together to develop the adults or matured citizens of the society.
- Assessment: to pry into, for the purpose of judging, deeding the amount, value, quality, or importance of a thing or placed on a thing.
- Government: A defined constitutional body that rules with authority and conducts the policy, actions and affairs of a state
- Effort: A great physical or mental activity needed achieve something.