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ABSTRACT

 

The study focused on “Evaluation of home and school environments on the artistic creativity of children in Primary Schools in Kaduna State”. Descriptive and Survey Research Design were adopted for the purpose of this study. The population of the study was selected randomly through simple and stratified sampling techniques. Out of the three senatorial zones or didtricts in Kaduna State; namely, Northern Senatorial, Central Senatorial and Southern Senatorial zones ; number of 12 primary schools were used in conducting this research. Three hundred and eighty four (384) children, 384 parents and 381 teachers answered the questions. Questions were administered to parents and teachers. Children were given drawing test on specified objectives. Observation was also used to determine the facilities, teaching and learning environment.The main aim of the study was to determine the kind of the influences the home and school environments have on children‟s artistic creativity in the primary schools. The objectives of the study were to: investigate the influence of parents on children‟s artistic creativity, find out the influence of school environments on children‟s artistic creativity, find out cultural influences on creative art activities of children and to examine the effect of peer group influences on children‟s artistic creativity.The test instruments were pre-tested to establish, validity and reliability. Three research instruments were used in conducting this research- questionnaire, practical drawing test and observation. The data collected were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences.Findings revealed that, home and school environments have significant influence on children‟s artistic creativity; however, school environments in Kaduna State were found not to be quite suitable for children‟s artistic creativity. It is recommended that, art exhibition should be organized for parents in schools to enable them see and appreciate their children‟s creative activities in art, more attention should be given in schools, through proper funding in art teaching by stake holders or private organizations, school stake holders should collaborate with local craftsmen and professional artists to promote artistic creativity or skills acquisition among school children,cultural activities be encouraged among children in home and school environments and that children should be allowed to relate freely with their peers at home and school environments to promote artistic creativity by sharing their experiences with each others.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… i
Declaration ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii
Certifition ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….iii
Dedication ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv
Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. v
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..viii
Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ix
List of Figures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xii
List of Tables …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..xiii
List of Plates …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xiv
List of Appendices ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. xv
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study ………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………………………….. 10
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study: …………………………………………………………………….. 12
1.4 Research Questions: ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
1.5 Basic Assumptions: ………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
1.6 Justification of the study: ………………………………………………………………………………… 13
1.7 Significance of the study:………………………………………………………………………………… 14
1.8 Scope of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
1.9 Operatioal definition of terms ………………………………………………………………………….. 15
1.10 Theoretical Framework: ………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18
2.1 The Concept of Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………… 18
2.1.1 Types of Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
2.1.2 Formative Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………………… 20
2.1.3 Summative Evaluation or Assessment ………………………………………………………………. 21
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2.2 Parents‟ influence on children‟s artistic creativiy ……………………………………………….. 22
2.2.1 Basic Principles of Children‟s Upbringing in the Home ……………………………………… 30
2.2.2 The Home Environment and the Child‟s Creative Activities in Art. ……………………… 38
2.2.3 Parents‟ Socio-Economic Status and Children‟s Educational Attainment ……………… 53
2.3 School Environment and its influence on children‟s artistic creativity ………………….. 63
2.3.1 The Classroom Environment …………………………………………………………………………… 70
2.3.2 The Art Teacher and Classroom Management …………………………………………………… 77
2.3.3 Teacher-Pupil Relationship in the Classroom…………………………………………………….. 79
2.3.4 How to Improve Student-Teacher Relationship in the Classroom ………………………… 82
2.3.5 Qualification and Characteristics of an Art Teacher ……………………………………………. 87
2.3.6 An Effective Teacher: …………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
2.3.7 Effective Teacher-Professional Skills ……………………………………………………………….. 95
2.3.8 Parents/Teachers Relationship in the School ……………………………………………………. 106
2.3.9 How Parent–Teacher Relationship or Partnerships can best be handled in Schools . 115
2.4 Influence of Home Community on Children‟s artistic creativity ………………………… 123
2.5 Cultural influences on children‟s interest in artistic creativity ……………………………. 130
2.6 Peer group influence on children‟s artistic creativity ………………………………………… 141
2.7 Empirical Studies …………………………………………………………………………………………. 150
2.8 Summary and Uniqueness of the study ……………………………………………………………. 153
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design…………………………………………………………………………………………… 155
3.2 Pilot Study andValidation of Instruments ………………………………………………………… 156
3.3 Population and Sample …………………………………………………………………………………. 157
3.4 Sampling Procedure ……………………………………………………………………………………… 158
3.4.1 Data Collection ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
3.5 Research Instruments ……………………………………………………………………………………. 160
3.5.1 Reliability and Validity: ………………………………………………………………………………… 162
3.6 Data Collection Procedures ……………………………………………………………………………. 162
3.7 Data Analyses Technique. …………………………………………………………………………….. 163
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CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
4.2 Results and Discussions ………………………………………………………………………………… 165
4.2.1 Demographic Information of Respondents ………………………………………………………. 165
4.3 Research Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………. 171
4.3.1 Research Question 1: Do parents influence children‟s artistic creativity? ……………. 171
4.3.2 Influence of Parents on Children‟s Artistic Creativity ………………………………………. 174
4.3.3 Influence of School Environment on Children‟s Artistic creativity …………………….. 179
4.3.4 Influence of Home Community on Children‟s Artistic Creativity ………………………. 183
4.3.5 Influence of Culture on Children‟s Artistic Creativity ………………………………………. 186
4.3.6 Influence of Peer Group on Children‟s Artistic Creativity …………………………………. 188
4.3.7 Major Findngs ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 192
4.3.8 Discussion: ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 194
5.2 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 196
5.3 Recommendation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 197
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge: ………………………………………………………………………….. 198
5.5 Suggestion for Further Study …………………………………………………………………………. 199
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 201
APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………226
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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The long teaching experience of the researcher from primary to tertiary level, has shown that art teaching has gone through a lot of challenges or obstacles as a subject; because the society does not appreciate the value of art education to children‟s learning. The researcher‟s ten years of teaching experience at the junior secondary schools in Kaduna State, also revealed the fact that art teaching in primary schools was not effective. Children who were admitted to go through the junior secondary schools, had a lot of difficulties in drawing, because they complaint that they did not have teachers in art. It was possible also that their parents did not encourage them to study art as a subject. This is because most parents today would prefer their children to go in for science subjects rather than Fine art.
Similarly, at the Kaduna Polytechnic where he is now working as a lecturer, under the Department of Fashion Design and Clothing Technology; he is equally facing the same challenges. Over the years that he has taught in the institution, students that gained admission into the Polytechnic without the basic background or knowledge in Fine Art. The researcher‟s experience year in year out on student‟s creative behaviour in Fine art or life drawing is that most of them find it very difficult to draw simple lines or curves; which indicates that they probably did not have art teachers to guide them in drawing and other activities in art from the schools they graduated. It is in the light of this fact or experiences that were observed by the researcher that have motivated him to embark on this very study. And the only way to tacle or to get out of this quaqmire, is to get back to the grass root; using the home and primary school environments as a case study. This is necessary because every child‟s education begins from the home and the
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school is the child‟s second learning environment. It is the policy of Nigeria government to make learnig or education free for every Nigerian child from primary to junior secondary school level. The universal Basic Education (UBE), for instance; introduced in 1999 replaced the Universal Primary Education (UPE), which was established in Nigeria in 1976. The current 9-3-4 system of education was designed in conformity with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and education for all. The UBE involves 6 years of primary school and 3 years of junior secondary school totaling 9 years of continuous learning, while transition from one class to another is automatic. The child‟s performance in class is also based on continuous assessment. This scheme is monitored by the Universal Basic Education Commission (UBEC). The aim of UBE is to make education free and a right of every child. However, it has been observed that not every Nigerian child goes to school today and it is equally believed that more than 10 million Nigerian school-age children are out of school. Oyesola (2013) and Onwumere (2014), presenting a United Nation reports on child‟s education, support the view that Nigeria has 10.5 million out of school children who currently do not go to school.
Despite the development in education, many are still unable to go to school because of their parents‟ low economic status and perhaps because of government inability to provide proper funding and the right environment for effective academic activities in schools. Children whose parents are poor may not enjoy a good support from their families to achieve their goals in life; unlike their colleagues who come from high socio-economic status.Roibito, Ekanem, Ushang and Nyong (2011) posit that human beings are born into different environmental conditions. Though people may have different hereditary potentials, the environment in which they find themselves may have greater influence on their lives, producing what the people may want the
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child to become in the future.Omebe (2002) states that the child is the product of his total environment. The child environment influences what he/ she is intended to become or learn as he/she grows up. Roibito et al (2011) again observed that the extent to which the child may reach academically depends largely on certain environmental conditions. They go further to say that children born into two different environments may tend to behave differently from each other. Thus, the child who comes from a remote village will behave differently from the one that comes from a city. This is as the result of the fact that the environments where they come from are not the same. Similarly, a child who comes from a rich family may have better living conditions than the one whose parents are poor or are from a low economic status. This is why their behavior or attitude cannot be the same. Roibito et al (2011) defines environment as those aspects of the organism‟s surroundings to which it responds to at a given time. These surroundings may include the physical or psychological. Kwa (2007) believed that creating a conducive educational environment is as important as what is taught and shared. This is to say that the quality of education that children receive in a school environment depends on what is obtainable in that school; that is, the nature of that school environment and qualification of its teachers. Sabarudin and Daud (2009) in the light of the above view noted that in the true sense of today‟s education, the learning environment is the interaction and application of many elements. Basically these include the human factor, the educator and the infrastructure as well as the way they interact with the students. This will ultimately determine the outcome of the learning environment.
However, Roibito et al (2011) observe that there are a variety of environments such as: the home environment, school environment, social environment, cultural environment, and many more. All these and those not mentioned here have significant
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influences on the growing child as he/she interacts, feels, smells, sees, hears, and touches things within or around his/her immediate environment. The home environment according to Roibito et al (2011) and Abraham (2015) is an important aspect of man‟s environment. It is the first environment that children come in contact with as soon as they are born into this planet called earth.The home environment they go further to say consists of the parents and siblings. In some cases, it may consist of only the nuclear family. That is, father, mother, and child or children. In other cases, it may include the extended members of the family. It is the first place or institution in which a child begins to learn. In supporting this view, Femi and Adewale (2012) noted that the responsibility of training a child always lies in the hands of the parents. This is congruent with the commom discussion of sociologists that education can be an instrument of cultural change that is being taught from home. Kagan and Kagan (2014) advised that as a parent, you are the engineer of many of your child‟s learning experiences and that intelligence is constructed as your children interact with their toys, you and others. They go a step further to state that no mater how colourful and enriching the learning environment is, it does not matter if your child does not interact with it. They concluded by saying that taking the time to play and learn with the child, is much more important than what is in the learning environment provided in the home.
In the same vein, Sifawa and Madaki (2009) agreeing with the submission of Roibito and his group state that, home environment constitutes the physical and economic surroundings of the living residence of human family. Apart from being a dwelling place, it is also regarded as a central institution of human relations.Bello (1999) suggests that the home environment consists of social status, position, occupation, education and the general characteristics of family in which a child is
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brought up. Sifawa and Madaki(2009) again argue that some of the variables that interacts directly or indirectly to constitute the home environment include social class, parental education, custom, home location, family size, religious beliefs, home facilities, birth order and discipline. The family, according to Minnet (2000), Sharma Mishra, and Bansal (2007) is a basic unit of the society. A family consists of a group of people of various ages who are usually related by birth, marriage or adoption. The members that constitute a family are: father, mother, siblings, grandfather, grandmother and other relations in the family. Saddley (2005) however suggests that the term parents include a child‟s custodial biological or adoptive parent, step parent, legal guardian, care taker or relative within the family. Any one amongst this group of persons has a special role in the life of a child in training and supporting the child‟s learning.
Parents‟ involvement in a child‟s early education is consistently found to be positively associated with a child‟s creative and academic performance (Reynolds, 2005; Nkom, 2006; Harris and Goodall, 2007). Bonci (2008) and Fan et al (2001) added by saying that parental involvement in their children literacy practices influences their academic performance. Mishra and Bamba (2012) agree that right from the birth; the child is much influenced by all those factors that surround him. They also believe that there are two institutions that have a direct influence on the child‟s learning behavior, the family and the school. Parent‟s inability to spend quality time with their children at home may affect their performance negatively in school. Parents therefore, must see their role in children‟s upbringing in education as crucial in life and which should not be toyed with but handled with care; because each step that a parent takes in training a child has its positive or negative effects in the child‟s future development, which may help the child to succeed or affect his/her future for ever. The amount of
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time that a child spends or shares with his/her parents and other siblings is the determinant factor of the child‟s attitude, values and behavioral pattern in life. Home environment plays an effective role in determining the intellectual, physical and psychological development of an individual. A child‟s attitude, emotions, intelligence as well as creative skills are determined by parents or the environment in which a child finds himself or herself. Abraham (2015) added by saying that, “the family is profoundly important to the developmental, emotional, cognitive and psychomotor growth of a child”. Children generally, are believed to be born with the ability to be creative and the environment could encourage or discourage the development of creativity; just as Makeri (2004) would say, “…if your house is a volcano, how shall you expect flowers to bloom”. Similarly, Makeri, (2004) notes that, “Flowers gradually unfold their beauty to the gentle rays of the sun; they break at the violence of the windstorm”. From the above quotes, it simply means that a child can not learn freely in a hostile environment. For instance, a child that grows or comes from a family that engages their children in storytelling or folklore is encouraged to do well in drama or creative writing in school. However this may not be the same experience with children that are brought up in environment that have interest in practical works of art or crafts such as, carpentry, building, weaving, carving, blacksmiting, just to mention but few). Children from this environment will want to acquire creative skills that will help them work with their hands to produce or form something that will help them to gain their living or to be self – employed. Children born in such environments may want to be involved in such trades or profession in the future.
However it is important to draw our attention to the fact that a creative child requires special intelligence. Moran (2009) tends to agree with this view when she
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observes that just as all children are not equally intelligent, all children are note equally creative. It is believed that all children are born with the tendency to be creative. Halls (2013), Makeri (2014) and Mbahi (2015) in support of this view believe that everyone is born with a natural streak of creativity; and that children are the best proof of this. It is the duty of parents and teachers to provide an enabling environment that will make children to express their feelings in art but often times parents tend to discourage them at their early stages of creative development. Makeri (2004) further observes that every child is a potential achiever if only he is well guided and guarded. Halls (2013) blames parents and teachers for failing to encourage children to be creative in early childhood. Halls added that basic habits that children learn from parents contribute to their energy and desire to nurture their natural creativity or to become uncreative. Chika (2013) says that when you give room for a child to be creative, it goes beyond just art; it flows to any other thing that a child will do or does. It makes a child to think harder, be inquisitive or wanting to create or explore his/her environment further.Sifawa and Madaki (2009) note that, “creativity is associated with the ability to generate new ideas and recognize alternative solutions to problems”. Tijani (2008) states that, “creativity improves one‟s imaginative skills to produce an object and bring about change in an organization”.
Parent‟s involvement in children‟s creative behaviours or activities cannot be over emphasized. When parents are involved in their children‟s education both parents and children are likely to benefit (Brown, 2009). Parents‟ participation in children‟s schooling enhances their self-esteem, improves academic achievement, improves parent-child relationships, and helps parents develop positive attitudes towards schooling and a better understanding of the schooling process (Brown, 2009). Parents‟ inability to guide and support children‟s learning at home may affect their academic
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performance negatively; and sometimes their inability to perform well in school is associated with poverty or parents economic status. Harvatin (2011) noted that children living in poverty are at risk of experiencing education hardships such as grade retention, dropping out, and being referred for special education. However, to encourage children in artistic creativity in home environments, parents should be able to provide their children with sufficient art materials such as: colours, pencils, papers, crayons, markers, brushes, pen and ink; just to mention but few. The school environment is the child‟s second learning environment after home In other words, a place where he or she gains more experience and additional knowledge on what has been acquired or taught at home. Every school environment is expected to be attractive with the right or befitting atmosphere for the child to learn. Barsh (2006) refers to school environment as a thread that connects the multitude of activities that children do when they are away from home.Children come to school with thoughts and feelings, words and pictures as well as ideas and fantasies. If given the environment, Dunmire (2014) said that children have an endless well of creative activities. In school they sing whimsical lyrics, produce imaginative plays, and show their innate ability to make something out of nothing. These are also some of the experiences the child gains or learn from home or immediate environment before attending school. Children are intensely curious about the world around them and enter school with high curiosity, expectations, questions, and the desire to feel competent and valued.Young children should have those personal characteristics even more strongly when they finish formal schooling.
The school environment can have a dramatic impact or influence on children‟s education. To achieve effective education in school, the environment needs to be conducive to learning and allow the pupils space and time to interact within the
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learning and teaching process. Read (1958) says that a school environment should not be artificial. It must have existing structures and should be attractive for academic activities. Creating and maintaining a stimulating learning environment can be achieved through effective classroom organization, interactive and whole school displays and a climate of innovation. A right school environment could affect the child‟s mood, interest, curiosity, imagination and motivation in creative activities. Learning environment if not properly handled or cared for could affect the child‟s performance negatively. School environment constitute building lay outs, teachers, head teacher, Parents‟ Teachers Association (PTA), peer-group, club and society and the school community (Mbahi, 2015). Each of these factors has an influence on a child‟s performance in school. The head teacher, for example, is the one that oversees all the activities that take place in the school both academic and non academic activities. He reports everything that happens in the school to the school administrators. To encourage art teaching in the school, it is his duty to ensure that art materials and the right learning environment are provided for effective artistic activities in school. For effective art activities to take place in school, it is advisable that qualified teachers are employed. It is often said that only creative teachers can produce creative children. Effective teachers are those who have the right content of what to teach in the classroom. Hayden (2010) observes that teachers who believe in themselves will accomplish a lot in the classroom and will not only know about what they teach but will be passionate about it.
Art activities in school could be encouraged through group activities in the classroom, art cubs and societies. These include, drama, music, drawing and painting, poetry, story-telling, molding with clay and cultural activities.Steinberg (2004) suggests that parents and teachers should permit their children to participate in group activities
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with their peers like music, dance, and sports. An effective parents‟ teachers‟ partnerships could influence children‟s interest in art activities; through this relationship, parents will know why their children need to study art in schools. One way to enjoy this relation with the school authority, according to Brown (2009), is through parents‟ teacher conferences and functions, receiving and responding to written communications from teachers. Another kind of involvement is home- based. This focuses on activities that parents can do with their children at home. Research indicates that art teaching has been relegated to the background or marginalized by the school stakeholders by not giving it its rightful position on the school time table (Gibson and Anderson, 2003; Deland, 2009; Gave, 2013).The society does not seem to approve the teaching of art in schools and parents interest are more in other subjects rather than art. They tend to force their children to study such courses without taking into consideration the child‟s very interest in art. An example of this is parents‟ preference for science subjects instead of art. This could probably be due to the fact that parents are not well informed of the role of art in the education of their children. Jacobs (1999) revealed that art in schools is simply seen as painting and drawing and not a subject studied by an academic scholar. The Issue of benefits of artistic creativity in children‟s academic performance regarding family involvement and school has not been well measured in developing countries. Research is therefore needed to provide all evidence to support the common claims that family involvement in learning school environment and could enhance children development in art activities.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
A very few studies have been conducted on the field of home and school environments and its impact on children‟s artistic creativity.The present study explores
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and evaluates the influence of home and school environments on the artistic creativity of primary school pupils in Kaduna State. Art as a subject has not been really encouraged in homes and school environments. This is probably due to the fact that the society up to now does not really know the value of art teaching in schools or in the education of their children. In Nigeria for instance, some parents do not see anything good about their children learning art in schools.This could be pobably because most school environments are not suitable for creative learning activities, as observed by Read (1958). Read is of the view that school environment should be made conducive for learning and that it should not be artificial. That is to say that there should be existing structures in school environments with adequate learning facilities to engage children in learning. Because parents do not like their Children to study art as a subject in schools, in most cases they are either forced or encouraged to study science subjects rather than art against their own wish or interest. It is in the light of this fact that Mbahi (2005) argues that “All human activities must serve mankind if they are not to remain useless and idle occupations. Wealth exists so that man may benefit by it; science exists in order to be man‟s guide; art too must serve some useful purpose and not a fruitless pleasure”. Mbahi added by saying that “Artistic creativity is relevant and useful to modern science and technology”. Still, he goes further to point out that “Art, science and technology are complementary rather than antagonistic to each other and there is no question of technology displacing artistic creativity or emphasized without any regard for artistic creativity”. This informs us therefore, that art and science are inseperable entities.
In some parts of the country still, religion or culture stand as a great hindrance to art teaching and learning in schools; because it is most likely that parents are not well informed about the importance or value of art in education. Barnabas and Ndandok
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(2008) in support of this fact noted that “… both the christian religion and Islamic religion do not encourage representational art. Islamic religion discourages in strong terms that artist should not imitate God by creating three dimentional art works”. Another major issue is that in schools it has been observed that art education is not given its proper position on the school curriculum. Teachers do not also provide children enough opportunity to express themselves in artistic creativity. For example, art period or lesson is sometimes used for other subjects rather than art. It will be worthwhile therefore, to determine the influences of the home (parents, sibilings) and the school environments (teachers, peergroups associations) on the art activities of primary school pupils, so that deeper understanding will be gained on how teachers will be able to teach pupils properly in artistic creativity. It is possible that home and school environments could either directly or indirectly affect children‟s interest or motivate them in aristic creativity. Children may reflect their home or the environment in their disposition to art. For example, by expressing their feelings on the happenings within the home, or vice versa; children are likely to learn faster by what they see or observe.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study:
The aim of the study is to determine the kind of the influences the home and school environments have on the artistic creativity of primary school children in Kaduna State. The specific objectives of the study are to:
1. investigate the influence of parents on children‟s artistic creativity;
2. find out the influence of school environment on children‟s artistic creativity;
3. Investigate the influence of home community on children‟s interest in artistic creativity.
4. find out cultural influences on creative art activities of children; and
5. examine the effect of peer group influences on children‟s artistic creativity.
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1.4 Research Questions:
The following research questions will be addressed in this study:
(1) How do parents influence children‟s artistic creativity?
(2) How does the school environment influence children‟s artistic creativity?
(3) What is the influence of home communities on children‟s artistic creativity?
(4) What kind of influence does culture have on children‟s artistic creativity?
(5) How does peer group‟s activities or relationship influence children‟s artistic creativity?
1.5 Basic Assumptions:
It is assumed in this study that:
(1) Parents influence children‟s artistic creativity
(2) School environments determine children‟s interest in artistic creativity.
(3) Home community affects children‟s artistic creativity.
(4) Culture impacts negatively or positively on children‟s artistic creativity.
(5) Peer groups influence children‟s artistic creativity.
1.6 Justification of the study:
This research is essential at this time because art teaching in primary schools is not given adequate attention. There is the need therefore to save it from total collapse and extinction by making an in-depth study into the root of the problem. The lack of children‟s interest in art courses due to parents‟ confrontational attitude on children‟s personal interest in art as a profession is directly affecting the admission of students to study art in tertiary levels as a career. Many parents and siblings or community
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members do not know their function in the development of the artistic creativity of children. Uhunmwagho (2008) observes that lack of effective art teaching in primary schools has gradually taken its toll on the art departments where they are now struggling to get candidates to study art as a profession. The society‟s position on art also discourages children from studying art in schools. Parents prefer science subjects. This is justified by Mamza (2008) when he notes that the ambivalent attitude of the Nigerian society towards art constitutes problems of teaching and learning art in secondary schools. Mbahi (1983) further notes that students are discouraged to study art in schools because parents, peer groups and teachers have mistaken impressions about art as a subject. Art education therefore, if given its proper position or place on the school curriculum, would help in providing the opportunity for unemployed graduates to be self–reliant, and will be able to provide jobs for others.
1.7 Significance of the study:
The study will serve as a useful material or manual to regulators of the puplic school system like the State Ministry of Education in Kaduna State. The outcome of the research will enable them to formulate strategies for educating parents on home attributes for enhancing artistic creativity among children. It is also hoped that the outcome of the study will contribute towards enabling teachers to deliver effective art teaching in primary schools, since they have the mandate to teach or guide children in school.It is also hoped that the outcome of this study will help to create a conducive learning environment in schools, through the provision of the right structures and art materials or facilities for children‟s free expression in art. The findings of this study will serve as a useful guide to parents who may want to support their children at home
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and also to teachers in providing learning activities that will promote the artistic creativity of primary school pupils.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is on the influence of home and school environments on the artistic creativity of primary school pupils. The home environment includes parents and siblings. The school environments involve teachers, peer group and school community. In this study the researcher used six (6) local Government Areas that were randomly selected out of the twenty three (23) Local Government Areas in Kaduna State. The study equally involved twelve schools that were randomly selected from the twelve Local Government Areas of the State for the purpose of this study. The researcher used 12 schools as a sample size out of the number of schools in Kaduna State. Using a small size out of the population of the schools will be justifiable, and the result of the study could be generalized to other schools at the end of the study.
1.9 Operatioal definition of terms
Influence: this refers to the level of parents‟involvement on children‟s learning behavior in the home. Home Environment: this means a child‟s place of birth and first learning experience. School Environment: it refers to the child‟s second learning environment School community: it is the environment in which the school is built or located. Home community: it refers to the environment in which the home is situated. Children’s creative activities: it means children‟s expressions in artistic creativity, which includes (drawing, painting, weaving, carving, creative writing, drama, dancing, and music just to mention but few). Creativity: it means one‟s ability to create something new or to reproduce what has been created in a different way. That is something new or novel.
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Cultural influence: this could mean children‟s personal experiences in cultural activities within their immediate environment. Peer group influence: it refers to children‟s engagement in age group relationships or activities.
1.10 Theoretical Framework:
The theoretical frame work of this study is hinged on the idea of Eisner (2002) and Gaitskell & Hurtwizt (1975) which deals with the condition of the environment as it affects children‟s learning in artistic creativity. Eisner is of the view that experiencing the environment is a process that continues throughout one‟s life; and also a process that is shaped by culture, influenced by language, impacted by beliefs, affected by values, and moderated by distinctive features of our lives.He furthermore believes that public schools are failing to appreciate the significance of art to educational development of children. That is to say that even in the developed nations, government does not pay proper attention to art teaching in puplic schools. His view is very important to this study, because it is what is dragging the researcher into this current study; the period when art as a subject is not given its full position on the school time table. Often a times art period is being used for other subjects probably because of lack of qualified art teachers. The is why going into this study has become very necessary for the researcher to fine the root cause of the issues that have been mentioned above in homes and public schools in Kaduna State, which calls for investigation. Hurtwitz&Gaitskell (1975) are of the view also that “a learning environment must be a place for sensory excitement; and must be considered as a child‟s link with the world outside the classroom”. Hurtwitz and Gaitskell are of the view that children should not only be confined to learning within the four walls of the class room, but should be given the freedom to learn outside the classroom environment.The views of the authors
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or professionals above have great relevance with the present study, because the researcher is particularly interested on children‟s expression in artistic creativity using different eviromental influences. Home and school environments have great roles to play in children‟s education, but it has been observed that parents and teachers do not give children enough time or support in learning by providing them with the right learning environment especially in artistic creativity; which calls for further investigation.
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