This study analyzed the factors influencing materials wastage in building site in Oredo LGA. This study was conducted into 2 selected building sites handled by Humtrex Building Construction Company. The study employed a descriptive survey research design. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used in the study. The primary source of data involved the use of self-structured questionnaire. Data collected from the two sites were analyzed using suitable statistical techniques such as ranking method, simple percentages and chi-square. The research revealed that material wastage is not totally avoidable on site. Material wastage results from human error rather than being inherent in the process or methods. Sandcrete blocks are more prone to wastage due to their susceptibility to breakage during handling and transit as workers do not carefully stack blocks properly on site or sometimes stack them too high. Poor Supervision with the mean rank value of 0.8 was also ranked as high factor that causes material wastage on construction sites. Competent staff (supervisors) should be employed to supervise construction projects to enforce strict rules that will enhance minimization of material wastage.
1.1 Background of the study
Generally, it is recognized that not all the materials delivered to construction sites are used for the purpose for which they were ordered and builders frequently use more materials than they receive payment for, either that the materials are lost or used on the site in such a way that estimators cannot account for. Minimization of material wastage on construction site is a lesson which many construction industries are yet to learn. But with the rapidly rising cost of building materials those industries that have not learnt and adopted material control measures will soon close down (Akinkurolere and Franklin, 2015).
Materials constitute large portions of the total building project; this makes the control of these resources very imperative. Ibironke et. al (2016) identified that material wastage can be in many forms, from carelessness in handling a single block on site to even erecting building in a wrong place. This loss of precious resources is readily affected by all because, we believed that material wastage is a natural phenomenon and consequence of the building process, that is why allowance is made during the preparation of estimate of a propose contract to offset waste (Adejuwon, 2015).
Depending on the site conditions, nature of work and condition of contracts, some factors are found to be responsible for the wastage of materials on site (Adewuyi, 2015). These include lack of appreciation of material value, attitude of operatives towards waste, poor design, storage condition and site security (Adewuyi et al., 2018). The overall effect these have on construction industries are of various magnitude ranging from competition during tendering (when tender is too high due to over estimation of allowance for waste), delay in execution of contract to accident on site (Berg and Hinze, 2015). This cost as a result of waste will amount to staggering sum of money periodically, therefore, the construction industries can no longer afford to lose colossal amount of money and resources to wastage on building site in this present time of global and national economic recession when unnecessary should be completely discouraged due expensiveness of building materials (Ekanayake and Ofori, 2020).
Building material waste is difficult to be recycled. Also, there is no sufficient space for the disposal of waste in cities. Generally, the materials that gets wasted include concrete, timer, mortar, steel, bricks, glass, paints, PVC pipes, electrical fixtures, steel formwork etc… among these materials the materials which gets least wasted but affects the profitability and are paints, pvc pipes, glass, electrical fixtures and tiles (Dania et al., 2017). These materials as they are least wasted are not given importance in reducing the waste generated. But these materials cannot be easily disposed as they are not bio-degradable and are sure to cause negative impact to the environment (Enshassi et al., 2019).
Construction waste management is a relatively new practice for Nigerian construction industry (Fayek et al., 2016). However, in developed countries it has been practiced through institutional, policy and legal methods and implementation of construction waste management strategies based on waste management hierarchy (Shen et al., 2016; and Poon et al., 2021). It is an endeavor to prevent and minimize construction waste in line with economic, health and environmental concerns. There are several strategies to be considered in construction waste management in order to prevent waste to reuse it and to deposit it properly. The effort to properly manage construction waste needs administrative, policy and legal measures.
Most studies in developing countries indicate the construction process is absent of effective construction management strategies Guerrero (2015). The construction industry has boomed in different countries as well as the Nigerian too. The construction waste management in the construction industry in general and specifically in the house sector is not as effective as it should be (Alwi et al., 2021).
There are very few local studies about construction waste in Nigeria. Olomolaiye et al. (2017) discovered 43 percent unproductive time on construction sites in Nigeria while Olomolaiye (2016) asserted that excessive materials wastage in Nigerian construction industry was due to improper management. Akinkurolere and Franklin (2015) observed that manual labour is more extensively employed in most Nigerian construction firms in handling and transportation of materials including the fragile ones and the belief that the cost of recycling and reusing of waste is prohibitive. Dania et al. (2017) reported that site waste management is very poor. Akanni (2017) found 13.6 percent wastage level of material in Nigerian construction industry. Oladiran (2019) discovered that 36.7 percent of professionals in construction companies rarely use waste management plans while 13.3 percent never used it. Furthermore, Adewuyi, Idoro and Ikpo (2018) revealed that the levels of material wastes generated on site are in excess of estimator’s allowance for some materials studied.
Material wastage on construction site is a problem which has over the years heightened the cost of building work. Many people have erroneously developed the attitude of accepting it as part of the building processes, without knowing that most of the factors causing the unnecessary loss of money due to materials wastage. This study is aimed at identifying material prone to wastefulness and identifying factors influencing materials wastage in building site in Oredo LGA
1.2 Statement of the problem
The increasing quantities of waste have created a bad image for the construction industry. In addition, an ineffective planning and control of materials on sites could lead to poor performance and undesirable project outcomes (Jayamathan and Rameezdeen, 2018). Nevertheless, the economic impact, contributions to employment and the benefits of investment in construction industry are very enormous. Construction activity forecasts the general direction of an economy and for this reason the industry is often described as a leading economic sector. The Nigerian construction market is among the largest construction markets in Africa, which has recorded impressive growth over the years. In 1981, it accounted for 5.8% of Nigeria’s GDP (Oluwakiyesi, 2016). Notwithstanding, construction activities result in the depletion of limited natural resources. According to Horvath (2019), the construction industry is one of the largest and most important industries, being at the same time the main consumer of natural resources and one of the largest polluters.
Construction material contributes significantly to the cost of construction project; therefore, material wastage has adverse impact on construction cost, contractor’s profit margin, construction duration and can be a possible source of dispute among parties to a project (Enshassi, Mohammed and Abushaban, 2019; Fellows, Langford and Newcombe, 2021). The cost of material waste generated on building sites represents avoidable cost in construction which can either be eliminated or reduced. Hoe (2015) stated that the extent to which waste can be prevented in the construction industry has been a long-debated issue. Whereas it is impossible to completely eliminate all wastage, the concern should be how practices in the local industry can be managed to minimise waste. The cost reduction achieved by preventing the generation of construction waste is equally of direct benefit to all stakeholders on a construction project.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objective of the study is to carry out an analysis of factors influencing materials wastage in building site in Oredo LGA.
Specifically, the study sought to:
- Examine the material wastage level at various stages of construction on site.
- Examine the factors contributing to material wastage on construction sites.
- Examine the effectiveness of methods for minimization of material wastage on site.
1.4 Research questions
- What is the material wastage level at various stages of construction on site?
- What are the factors contributing to material wastage on construction sites?
- What is the effectiveness of methods for minimization of material wastage on site?
1.5 Hypotheses of the study
- Ha: Material wastage totally avoidable on site
Ha: Material wastage is not totally avoidable on site.
- Ha: Material wastage result from human error rather than being inherent in the process or method
Ho: Material wastage does not result from human error rather than being inherent in the process or method.
1.6 Significance of the study
This study investigates the factors influencing materials wastage in building site in Oredo LGA. Construction industry represent one of the most significant sectors in the economy of the country. As these materials wasted also affect the project cost and effectiveness of the project also cause negative impact to the environment. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the factors contributing to materials that are minimum wasted and the importance of waste management plan. Minimizing the amount of waste material generated will also help in solving the problem of removal of waste. The main advantage of implementing the waste management plan is cost saving.
Also, it is well known that waste management in construction reduces material wastage on construction site that accounts for cost over runs. For construction, more efficient use of products means reduced costs of purchasing new materials. Waste management reduces waste disposal costs and also improves site safety through better waste management. Also, it improves work efficiencies through accurate detailed design, a focus on reducing rework, temporary works and mistakes.
1.7 Scope of the study
This study analyzed the factors influencing materials wastage in building site in Oredo LGA. The study was carried out in a building construction site in Oredo LGA, Edo state, handled by Humtrex Building Construction Company.
1.8 Limitation of the study
The major problem is lack of adequate information and data like the types and quantity of waste at the site. No previous studies were carried out to assess the impact of condominium building construction waste management in general or particularly relating to projects in Oredo LGA. Thus, finding accurate data on the type and quantity of waste and the time of their disposal has been difficult. There was also lack of data with respect to other components of waste as well as its impacts. There is serious lack regarding data on the specific health, environmental and economic impacts. In assessing the health, economic and environmental impacts the researcher had to rely on analysis of data, the researcher has collected by means of primary tools and exploration of literature and research on other countries.
1.9 Definition of terms
Construction Waste – Wasted or damaged materials generated from construction site which need to be transported elsewhere to the construction sites or used within the construction site itself for the purpose of land filling, incineration, recycling, reusing, or composting rather than the intended specific purpose of the project due to material change, excess nonuse, or noncompliance with the specifications or being a byproduct of the construction process.
Construction Waste Disposal – The land filling, incineration, recycling, reusing, or composting of construction waste materials.
Construction Waste management – An efficient material handling, reduction, reuse, recycling and disposal of construction waste materials.
Waste Management Strategy– An all-encompassing strategy to effectively utilize construction resources, with the view to reducing the quantity of waste and utilizing the generated waste in the most effective manner constituting avoiding waste, re-using and recycling waste materials. Avoiding waste refers to any practice to avoid or minimize waste at source. Re-using and recycling refer to the re-using and recycling of waste materials.