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Athletic Identity, Grit And Self Efficacy As Determinants Of Sport Injury, Rehabilitation And Recovery Among Athletes Of Oyo State

Abstract

This study examined Athletic identity, grit and self efficacy as determinants of sport injury, rehabilitation and recovery among athletes of Oyo state. The study also examined the relationship between locus of control, grit and self-efficacy in athletes and non-athletes. The sample consisted of 100 non-athletes (33-males and 67-females) and 100 athletes (70-males and 30-females), playing various individual sports such as javelin throw, shot put, long jump, hammer throw, triple jump, discus throw, and hurdles from Chennai city in the age range of 18-25 years. Participants were administered the Rotter’s Locus Of Control Scale (Rotter, 1966), The General Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1992) and Grit-S Scale (Duckworth and Quinn, 2009). Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation was used to find the relationship between variables. Independent samples t-test was computed to examine if there were any differences in locus of control, self-efficacy and grit among athletes and non-athletes. Findings revealed that there was a significant difference in locus of control among athletes and non-athletes. Athletes had an internal locus of control. No significant differences emerged in self-efficacy and grit among athletes and non-athletes. There was a significant positive relationship between self-efficacy and grit. No significant relationship emerged between locus of control and grit and locus of control and self-efficacy.

 

TABLES OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem

1.3 Significance of the study

1.4 Objectives of the Study

1.5 Research Questions

1.6 Scope of the study

1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

2.2 History and Scope of Athletic Training

2.3 Overview of Sport Psychology

2.4 Overview of Imagery

2.4.1 Prevalence of Imagery Use

2.4.2 Evidence that Imagery Works

2.5 Overview of Goals

2.5.1 Prevalence of Goal Setting Use

2.5.2 Evidence that Goal Setting Works

2.6 Overview of Self-talk

2.6.1 Prevalence of Self-talk

2.6.2 Evidence that Self-talk Works

2.7 Mental Skills Training and Injury Rehabilitation

2.8 Athletic Training Literature

2.9 Overview of Self-efficacy

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research design:

3.2     Participants:

3.3     Procedure:

3.4     Instruments:

3.5     Personal data sheet:

3.6     Statistical analyses:

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Results

4.2 Discussion

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusions

5.2 Recommendations

REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

What makes a good athlete? People have often asked this question. Swapna Barman’s historic performance in the Asian Games in 2018 is a story of grit and inspiration in the face of adversity. She was the first person in Indian history to win 5 gold medals for India. Swapna Barman won the gold medal in the women’s heptathlon, which is a track and field combined event made up of seven events. The dream of becoming a world champion was the only driving force for Swapna Barman, but she had to undergo many hardships and her struggles included having an extra toe on each foot, and economic constraints. Two days prior to the 2018 Asian Games she suffered from a severe tooth pain, but this did not distract her from her dream of becoming a world champion. She participated in the competition with a tape on her cheeks to alleviate the pain. Swapna was so determined that even the severe pain did not distract her from her goal. She exhibited passion and perseverance towards her long-term goals of becoming a world class champion and won the gold medal. Swapna Barman is an example of true grit. The term Grit has been defined as “The passion and perseverance for long-term goals” (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews & Kelly, 2007). According to Duckworth “achievement is the product of talent and effort, the latter a function of the intensity, direction and duration of one’s exertions towards a long-term goal.” Elumaro (2016) investigated grit, personality traits and sporting achievements in one hundred and forty two sportsmen and women (mean age= 24.7). The participants completed the Grit Scale (Duckworth, Matthews & Kelly 2007) and the Big Five Inventory10 (Rammstedt & John, 2007). The levels at which participants played their sports was used as a measure of achievement. The results revealed that grit was a predictor of sporting achievement. Larkin et.al (2015) conducted a study on sports specific engagement in three hundred and eighty five elite youth soccer players. The Short Grit Scale (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) was used in this study. It was found that grittier players significantly spend more time in sport-specific activities including competitions, training, play, and work towards their sporting goals. It was also found that grittier players also performed better than less gritty players on sport specific perceptual- cognitive assessments.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Certified Athletic Trainers (ATCs) are required to understand and know the psychological aspects of injury.  In fact, they must be competent in psychological techniques such as imagery, goal setting, and self-talk, and must be able to demonstrate and implement mental skills techniques into clinical decision-making and patient care (NATA, 2011). However, with the multitude of tasks ATCs must perform, how much emphasis is placed on learning and implementing mental skills techniques with injured athletes?  Understanding how to implement imagery, goal setting, and self-talk with injured athletes can greatly enhance the injury recovery process, both physiologically and psychologically (Cressman & Dawson, 2011; Cupal & Brewer, 2001; Theodorakis, Beneca, Malliou, & Goudas, 1997).  Thus, ATCs need to be confident in their ability to teach and facilitate mental skills techniques with injured athletes.  However, with the multitude of tasks ATCs must perform the question arises as to how much emphasis is actually placed on learning and implementing mental skills techniques with injured athletes?  Moreover, to date no studies have examined the self-efficacy of ATCs in their use of mental skills techniques with injured athletes.  The majority of literature has instead focused on ATCs’ beliefs and perceptions of mental skills techniques in aiding injured athletes (Hamson-Utley, Martin, & Walters, 2008; Larson, Starkey, & Zaichkowsky, 1996), the role of ATCs in the post injury psychological recovery of athletes (Tracey, 2008; Washington-Lofgren, Westerman, Sullivan, & Nashman, 2004), and the use of psychological strategies with injured athletes (Wiese, Weiss, & Yukelson, 1991).  Another important area of athletic training research has focused on educating athletic training students on the psychosocial aspects of injury (Kamphoff, Hamson-Utley, Antoine, Knutson, Thomae & Hoenig, 2010; Stiller-Ostrowski, Gould, & Covassin, 2009; Stiller-Ostrowski & Ostrowski, 2009).  While the previously mentioned areas of study with ATCs are important, research is needed to understand ATCs’ self-efficacy in using and implementing mental skills with injured athletes.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Due to ATCs interactions with athletes, they are often in the best position to engage in mental skills training with those who are injured.  ATCs spend extended periods of time with injured athletes that allow them to build and foster personal relationships.  ATCs are often injured athletes’ greatest social support system during the injury recovery process (Robbins & Rosenfield, 2001; Tracey, 2008).  

Often times when an athletic injury occurs, the focus is on the physical effects of the injury and rehabbing the injury so that the athlete may return to play.  Many times, though, the psychological impact of injury is ignored.  Neglecting the psychological response to injury can be a problem if not addressed.  Research has shown that injured athletes may possibly face numerous psychological consequences.  These consequences include depression and negative emotions such as fear, anger, guilt, mood disturbance, and anxiety (Leddy, Lambert, & Ogles, 1994; Smith, Scott, O’Fallon, & Young, 1990; Wiese-Bjornstal, Smith, Shaffer, & Morrey, 1998). However, the abundance of research suggests that mental skills training with injured athletes can have a positive physiological and psychological effect (Christakous, Zervas, &

Lavallee, 2007; Cressman & Dawson, 2011; Cupal & Brewer, 2001; Lebon, Guillot, & Collet, 2012; Theodorakis, Beneca, Goudas, Antonoiu, & Malliou, 1998; Theodorakis, Beneca, Malliou,

& Goudas, 1997; Theodorakis, Mallious, Papaioannou, Beneca, & Filactakidou, 1996).

Imagery, goal setting, and self-talk are often used in conjunction to aid in injury recovery.  One of the first studies conducted by Ievela and Cupal (1991) found that athletes with knee and ankle injuries who engaged in imagery, goal setting, and self-talk had quicker recovery times than those who did not engage in imagery, goal setting, and self-talk.  Mental skills training helps athletes improve their physical rehabilitation.  Cupal and Brewer (2001) found that athletes who used imagery during their injury recovery period demonstrated greater knee strength than those who did not engage in imagery.  Similarly, Christakou, Zervas, and Lavallee (2007) found that athletes suffering from grade II ankle sprains who used imagery during recovery displayed better muscular endurance than those who did not use imagery.  With regards to self-talk, Theodorakis and colleagues (1998) found that injured athletes who used self-talk during a quadriceps-strengthening program, performed better on a quadriceps strength task than injured athletes who did not use self-talk.  While mental skills training can impact the physical aspect of rehabilitation, it has been shown to also improve the psychological aspect of recovery.

The majority of research has focused on the use of imagery to help injured athletes improve negative mood states and adherence to rehabilitation.  Cressman and Dawson (2011) found that injured athletes who engaged in imagery reported an increase in confidence, motivation, relaxation, focus and rehabilitation adherence.  Similarly, Evans, Hare, and Mullen (2006) found that athletes who used imagery also reported increased confidence, motivation, and relaxation.  However, more research is needed to understand the impact of mental skills training with injured athletes.

While many studies have addressed injured athletes’ use of mental skills techniques for enhancing recovery, there is less research addressing ATCs’ involvement in facilitating mental skills techniques with injured athletes.  Particularly, there is limited research on the self-efficacy of ATCs’ use of mental skills training with athletes and no research on the self-efficacy of ATCs’ use of mental skills training with injured athletes.  One study examined the self-efficacy beliefs and usage of nine psychological skills of ATCs, coaches, and licensed psychologists selfefficacy and usage of nine psychological skills (Zizzi, Blom, Watson II, Downey, & Geer, 2009).  The researchers found that self-efficacy scores corresponded to the frequency of usage of each skill.  Therefore, ATCs reported high self-efficacy for goal setting with athletes and thus implemented that mental skill more frequently.  Though not specifically looking at self-efficacy, Washington-Lofgren and colleagues (2004) found that 33% of ATCs have been in a situation in which they knew what mental skill to use with injured athletes but did not know how to or had the confidence to do so.  It is important for ATCs to be confident in their ability to facilitate mental skills with injured athletes because those who are confident using the mental skill technique will be more likely to do so with injured athletes.

Having a general belief in one’s ability to successfully perform a task is referred to as selfefficacy (Bandura, 1997).  Self-efficacy is a cognitive mechanism that influences thoughts, actions and behaviors (Bandura).   That is, self-efficacy can influence an individual’s choice of activities and goals, effort and persistence, performance, and thought patterns and emotional reactions (Bandura).  Therefore, individuals with high self-efficacy beliefs will be more likely to pursue challenging goals, employ effective coping mechanisms, and persevere through setbacks (Feltz, Short, & Sullivan, 2008).  On the other hand, individuals with low self-efficacy beliefs may avoid difficult goals, quit in the face of failure, and worry about not performing well (Feltz et al., 2008).

Thus, if ATCs’ have high self-efficacy beliefs in teaching and facilitating mental skills training with injured athletes they may be able to help injured athletes in a more effective and positive manner.  However, ATCs with low self-efficacy beliefs in teaching and facilitating mental skills training might neglect the psychological aspect of recovery, thus potentially not engaging in mental skills training with injured athletes.  Neglecting the psychological aspect of recovery can be detrimental to injured athletes.  Therefore, self-efficacy beliefs may play a role in determining which ATCs use mental skills techniques with injured athletes.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to examine athletic identity, grit and self efficacy as determinants of sport injury, rehabilitation and recovery among athletes of Oyo state.

The specific objectives of the study were as follows:

  1. To compare locus of control, grit and self-efficacy in athletes and non-athletes.
  2. To examine the relationship between locus of control, grit and self-efficacy in athletes and non-athletes.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What is the comparism among locus of control, grit and self-efficacy in athletes and non-athletes?
  2. What is the relationship between locus of control, grit and self-efficacy in athletes and non-athletes?

1.6 HYPOTHESES

In order to investigate the objectives of the study and after examining the review of literature, the following hypotheses were formulated.

  1. There will be no significant difference in locus of control between athletes and non-athletes.
  2. There will be no significant difference in self-efficacy between athletes and non-athletes.
  3. There will be no significant difference in grit between athletes and non-athletes.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study was carried out on athletic identity, grit and self efficacy as determinants of sport injury, rehabilitation and recovery among athletes. The study was limited to athletes in Oyo State.

1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS 

Certified Athletic Trainer (ATC)- Allied healthcare professionals who specialize in the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of medical conditions involving impairment, functional limitations, and disabilities in physically active populations (NATA, 2012).   Goal setting- Establishing what an individual is trying to accomplish within a specified time frame (Saari & Latham, 1981).

Imagery- The use of one’s senses to re-create or create an experience in the mind (Vealey & Greenleaf, 2010).

Mental skills techniques- Cognitive-behavioral strategies and techniques used to enhance or improve athletes’ psychological abilities in order to facilitate sport performance or personal development (Vealey, 2005).

Self-efficacy- An individual’s perception in his or her ability to successfully perform a specific task (Bandura, 1997).

Self-talk-Verbal or non-verbal talk that a person engages in with him- or herself (Theodorakis et al., 2000).

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