In some selected primary schools in the Oredo local government area of Edo state, this research work examines the effects of reward and punishment on student academic achievement in primary school. The researcher develops research questions before starting the investigation. The respondents were asked to answer 20 questions in a questionnaire. Students from chosen secondary schools in the Oredo local government region made up the study’s population. The data was analyzed using a simple percentage. The study’s findings were discussed, and it became clear that a large percentage of students have made punishing a habit. The majority picked up the punishment habit from their peers, etc. On the basis of the discussion of the results, helpful suggestions were offered. I fervently think that these suggestions, if followed by the relevant authorities, will make a significant difference in putting an end to punishment of pupils in the area.
1.1 Background Of The Study
In secondary schools, teachers are thought to be able to maintain class discipline through the use of rewards and punishments. The successful use of reward and punishment in secondary schools has been debated by several psychologists and education experts.
In order to provide the reader with enough information on which to base their decision after reading this work, the study aims to bring together many points of view and emotions of others as it goes along. Nowadays, secondary schools administer problems of reward and punishment often, especially when they relate to the learning process. It is a topic of equal interest to many instructors and parents who are concerned about the necessity for educational authorities to set boundaries. Some academics have advised in their books giving students almost complete freedom in the classroom. The matter has to be resolved quickly and amicably since the resolution will offer helpful counsel and direction to those just starting out as teachers or to parents who are concerned about their children’s development. But rather than claiming to have all the answers to the issues surrounding incentives and punishments in the classroom, this research highlights a few options that will be extremely beneficial to both parents and the broader public in terms of education.
Among educational psychologists, reward and punishment have reportedly continued to spark debates, according to Udoh (2009). In order to modify undesirable behavior, there is ongoing discussion regarding the best teaching strategy, which includes both reward and punishment. According to Durojaiye (2002), in order to promote learning, the two methods of reward and punishment should be utilized correctly during the teaching and learning process. While some support using the two to help instructors regulate their students’ conduct, others may believe that using rewards in addition to punishment is the only way to achieve the desired behavioral change. However, there is broad agreement among academics that the issue is with how these methodologies are applied.
However, according to Boekaerts (2012), the classroom is both the birthplace and the final resting place of brilliance. In other words, regardless of the veracity of this claim, society undoubtedly anticipates certain consequences from the students’ experiences in the classroom. As a result, a student’s performance in school is influenced not only by his intellectual capacity but also by his desire to learn new things. If kids are sufficiently motivated, their drive to study might be strong enough to prevent them from joining the ranks of the growing number of school dropouts. 2013 (Ilegbusi).Additionally, as the achievement of a student’s aim is considered to be an important goal of education, the element that creates the optimum learning environment should be taken into consideration as a crucial component of educational factor. According to Walker (2008), punishment and reward are the elements that shape students’ optimum learning environments; as a result, these aspects and motivational tactics have a significant impact on students’ performance in any subject.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The existence and growth of a person depend heavily on discipline. Children, by their very nature, make errors all the time, and it’s not uncommon to discover preschoolers acting in ways that may get them in trouble. Parents and preschool instructors both have a part in making sure that the different forms of discipline used in indiscipline instances are applied appropriately.
In some selected secondary schools in the Oredo local government area of Edo state, the emphasis is on the research of the impacts of reward and punishment on student academic achievement. The writer makes an attempt in the research to summarize the numerous works on this subject authored by educationists and psychologists. In order to understand the following issues, it is necessary to analyze the opinions of some of these well-known authors in addition to the results of the research and one’s own personal experience.
- To determine if punishment may be used to teach something effectively.
- Whether there are any other successful reward and punishment-based teaching techniques.
- Whether punishment has an impact on secondary school pupils’ ability to study.
- If reward and punishment can be integrated, educational goals can be met in a significant way.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the challenges of reward and punishment on academic performance of student in Primary school in Oredo local government area of Edo state. This study was guided by the following objectives:
- Establish the influence of rewards on children’s respect for the school rules.
- Establish the influence of punishment on correcting deviant behavior among preschoolers.
- Determine the influence of rewards on class attendance.
- Determine the influence of punishment on respect for school property.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide this study.
- Does punishment has any effect on the learning process of the children in secondary schools?
- Does effective learning always take place in the absence of any form of punishment?
- Do parents and teachers support the use of punishment?
- Does reward and punishment promote orb encourage learning?
- Does punishment has negative effect on learning?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
For students and parents in the Oredo local government area of Edo state, this study is anticipated to be very significant and helpful. They could understand the significance of reward and punishment in secondary schools as a result of this study. This research is intended to benefit and enhance the academic performance of the secondary school administration in the Oredo local government region.
In some selected secondary schools in the Oredo local government area of Edo state, this study will also aid in determining the impacts of incentives and punishments on learning.
The study will also help instructors understand the best ways to use reward and punishment to accomplish learning goals in the classroom and during lessons by providing them with its results and recommendations. However, it should be remembered that every instructor in a classroom setting must define their desired objectives of a specific session in objective terms. Teachers must be aware of the motivational strategy to use in order to carry out the lesson’s stated objectives and meet its ultimate goal. In this situation, the instructor will receive pertinent information from the study on the use of reward and punishment in teaching and learning. For this reason, Cameron (2011) supports the idea that teachers might utilize incentives to help their pupils become more motivated to study.
Thirdly, when the results of this research are put into practice, the study will help pupils feel driven to learn. This is due to the fact that many kids’ academic performance will increase since the usage of reward and punishment will be directed toward appropriate application. As a result, reward and punishment can both increase students’ motivation to study more and decrease their bad behavior. Therefore, Walter (2005) believes that rewards can stimulate learners to study more and raise their interest in learning, but punishment can diminish unwanted behavior. However, rewards can also encourage both healthy and harmful rivalry among students, which can both improve academic performance and reduce involvement. 2007 (Alkinson). Shi (2005) argued that in order for students to fully benefit from the range of learning situations they encounter as students, they must build and hone their own learning techniques. Therefore, using prizes and incentives may undermine students’ natural drive to complete tasks. Shi, 2005 further argued that while rewards are beneficial in educational and other social contexts, if they aren’t given correctly, they may encourage students to compare their own performance to that of their peers.Fourthly, the study will similarly assist curriculum developers in understanding certain educational and motivating strategies that they should promote via the creation and implementation of curricula for successful teaching and learning in schools. Additionally, it offers pertinent information regarding reward and punishment, difficulties or difficulties encountered throughout the teaching and learning process that should be incorporated in the curriculum of education.The fact that the society is the recipient of the results of education does not exclude the society from being one of the beneficiaries of this research endeavor. To put it another way, if the intended change in student behavior is realized via the effective application of appropriate and motivating teaching and learning methods, then the society will experience growth and development through peaceful living, productivity, among other things.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
In some selected secondary schools in the Oredo local government area of Edo state, the scope of this study is restricted to the effects of incentives and sanctions on students’ performance.
Such research work would be a response to the research question indicated on the paragraph dealing with the problem of the study. The writer shall make the findings of the research work available to the headmasters of the schools where she performed the research upon completion.
The writer will make an effort to inform the communities where she conducted her research work of the results of the goals of her interview with them. It will be a sort of enlightenment on the part of the investigators because the children are comparable to other children in the entire Edo state because they run the same curriculum under the same brand of teachers, and the findings of the research would be the same for other places in Edo state and in fact elsewhere in the final report.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Reward: is an act of appreciating a job well done.
Punishment: an act of correcting a wrong act or character exhibited.
Discipline: is the act of training people to obey rules and orders and punishing them if they do not control the situation that results from this training.
Investigation: is the act of official examination of the facts about a situation, crime etc. criminal murder police investigation.
Sufficient: enough for a particular purpose as much as you need or allow sufficient time to get there.
1.9 Organization Of The Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.[email protected].[email protected].