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Download this complete Project material titled; Chemical Analysis Of Moringa Oleifera (Lam), Detarium Microcarpum (Guill And Perr) And Bauhinia Monandra (Kurz) Seeds For Nutrient And Antinutrient Factors with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page…………………………………………………………
Declaration ……………………………………………………… ii
Certification……………………………………………………… iii
Dedication………………………………………………………… iv
Acknowledgement……………………………………………….. v
Table of Contents………………………………………………… vii
List of Tables…………………………………………………….. xi
List of Figures……………………………………………………. xii
Abstract…………………………………………………………… xiii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Background Study ……………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Evaluation of Plants Nutrients…………………………………… 2
1.3 Statement of Problem ……………………………………………….. 3
1.4 Aims and Objectives……………………………………………… 5
1.5 Justification for the Study………………………………………… 5
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review………………………………………………… 6
2.1.0 Moringa oleifera (Lam) ………………………………………….. 6
2.1.1 Morphology of Moringa oleifera…………………………………. 6
2.1.2 Uses of Moringa oleifera…………………………………………. 7
2.2.0 Bauhinia monandra (Kurz) ……………………………………….. 8
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2.2.1 Morphology of Bauhinia monandra……………………………… 8
2.2.2 Uses of Bauhinia monandra……………………………………… 8
2.3.0 Detarium microcarpum (Guill and Sperr)………………………… 9
2.3.1 Morphology of Detarium microcarpum………………………….. 9
2.3.2 Uses of Detarium microcarpum………………………………….. 9
2.4 Proximate Analysis………………………………………………. 10
2.5 Moisture Content of Seeds……………………………………… 11
2.6 Ash Content of Seeds…………………………………………… 11
2.7 Organic Matter Content of Seeds………………………………. 12
2.8 Mineral Content of Seeds………………………………………. 12
2.9 Lipids Content of Seeds………………………………………… 13
2.10 Protein Content of Seeds……………………………………….. 14
2.11 Amino acid Content of Seeds……………………………………. 15
2.12 Carbohydrate Content of Seeds………………………………… 15
2.13 Anti-nutritional Factors in seeds………………………………… 16
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials and Methods…………………………………………… 20
3.1 Sample Collection and Preparation………………………………. 20
3.2 Reagents………………………………………………………….. 20
3.3 Determination of Moisture Content…………………………….. 25
3.4 Determination of Ash and Organic Matter Content……………… 25
3.5 Elemental Analysis……………………………………………….. 25
3.5.1 Elemental Analysis by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry………. 25
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3.5.2 Determination of Sodium and Magnesium by AAS………………. 27
3.5.3 Determination of Phosphate-Phosphorus…………………………. 28
3.5.4 Determination of Sulphate-Sulphur………………………………. 29
3.6 Determination of lipid Content……………………………………. 30
3.7 Determination of Crude Protein…………………………………… 30
3.8 Determination of Soluble Carbohydrate………………………….. 31
3.9 Determination of Crude Fibre…………………………………….. 32
3.10 Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide……………………………… 32
3.11 Determination of Phytate………………………………………….. 33
3.12 Determination of Tannins…………………………………………. 33
3.13 Determination of Saponins………………………………………… 34
3.14 Determination of Chemical Properties of the Oils………………… 35
3.14.1 Determination of Iodine Value ……………………………………. 35
3.14.2 Determination of Acid Value………………………………………. 35
3.14.3 Determination of Free Fatty Acid………………………………….. 36
3.14.4 Determination of Peroxide Value………………………………….. 36
3.14.5 Determination of Saponification Value……………………………. 37
3.14.6 Determination of Ester Value……………………………………… 37
3.14.7 Extraction of Fatty Acids from the Oils…………………………… 37
3.14.8 Spectrometric Determination of the Oils and Fatty Acids………… 38
3.15 Determination of Amino Acids……………………………………. 38
3.16 Statistical Analysis………………………………………………… 40
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CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Results discussion and Conclusion ……………………………….. 41
4.1 Results ……………………………………………………………. 41
4.2 Discussion………………………..……………………………..… 51
4.3 Conclusion………………………………………………………… 64
4.4 Recommendation……………………………………….…………… 64
References ………………………………………………………….. 66

Project Topics

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Study
The science of nutrition deals with the study of food constituents and their effects
on the body. Food constituents refer to food nutrients required to promote and sustain
good health as well as restore health in times of illness. These are chemical substances
found in food and can be divided into two major groups, macro and micronutrients. The
macronutrients are proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, while the micronutrients are the
minerals and vitamins. All these nutrients work together to build and maintain a healthy
body, protect it from diseases as well as restore it to good health (Barke, 1996). It is a
known fact that food does not guarantee good health; it is adequate nutrition that plays a
vital role in achieving optimum health. Other factors include environmental conditions,
mental health, lifestyle, heredity, diseases, education and economic status (Rao, 1994).
The effects of inadequate nutrition practices are easily observed by the physical
appearance of hair, skin, eyes and body weight changes. While over nutrition leads to
overweight, protruding stomach, double chin and skin folds around the waist and neck.
Hence adequate nutrient intake is a prerequisite for good health. (Lockett et al, 2000).
In most countries of Africa, including Nigeria, this prerequisite is not met owing
to the neglect of the agricultural sector by the government, rising population and ban on
importation of some cereals such as rice, corn e.t.c, resulting in limited food supply
(Igbedioh, 1996). The consequence of this is hunger, malnutrition and increase in dietary
diseases, especially for the vulnerable population groups such as children and pregnant
women (Sadik, 1991). Therefore, the exploitation of the neglected and lesser-known
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plants of natural bushes and forest may be one approach to attain good health and in
general food security (Rao, 1994).
1.2 Evaluation of Plant Nutrients
The analysis of nutritional value of plant food materials has attracted
contemporary scholarships because of the role they play as major constituents of
necessary food required for the growth and survival of living organisms. Nutritional and
dietetic treatment of diseases as well as research into the problem of human nutrition
demand for the knowledge of chemical composition of food. Information about plant
food materials are of nutritional significance in assessing the particular plant that would
be given special consideration with regards to propagation and cultivation, to meet the
needs of the increasing population (Rao, 1994).
The result of analysis of some edible plants of Botswana, revealed that, one
hundred and fifty wild edible plants that have high nutritional value. Some of the species
include Bauhinia, Grewia, Scherocarya, Ximenia, Strychnos, Cereopegia, Ochna,
Detarium and Silla; but land use system are altering the distribution and abundance of
such food plants (Campbell, 1986). According to Baumer (1995) over two hundred trees
and shrubs of West African origin can produce products that have high nutritional value.
Smith (1996) reported that wild species of some plant fruits, leaves, nuts and seeds are of
high minerals. The investigation of the nutritional role of some wild plants of Niger
origin (the species include Moringa oleifera, Ximenia americana, Amaranthus viridus,
Corchorus tridens, Habiscus sabdarifa, Maeria crassifolia and Leptadema hastate)
showed that all the plants contained significant amount of essential nutrients, like amino
acids, fatty acids and trace minerals (Smith,1996). These results reinforced the growing
17
awareness that wild edible plants of the Western Sahel contribute useful amount of
essential nutrients to the human diet (Freiberger, 1998). The result of the analysis of eight
wild plants from this same region lead to the conclusion that the inhabitants of the
Western Sahel should be encouraged to devise healthy diets from these plants especially
when cereal staples are in shot supply (Sena 1998).
Quite a number of plant food consumed by some communities are not
nutritionally useful because of toxicants occurring naturally or artificially in them. The
presence of such toxins could pose great hazards to the health and well being of the
consumers. For example, high tannin in diet adversely affect digestibility of protein and
carbohydrate, and reduces growth, feeding efficiency, metabolisable energy and
bioavailability of amino acids (Chang, 1994; Sotelo, 1995a). Kamalu (1995) and Jansz
(1997) stated that dietary cyanide can damage the nervous system and the thyroid gland,
other effect include pancreatic diabetes, vitamin B12 deficiency, decrease in iodine intake,
liver inflammation and hemorrhage. Kidney, adrenal, myocardial and testicular lesion are
also associated with hydrogen cyanide containing foods. (Abaye, 1998). Furthermore,
people who depend on high phytate diet are deficient in phosphorous, calcium, zinc,
manganese, iron and magnesium, due to the binding of phytic acid to these elements, and
their conversion to indigestible phytates making them unavailable, thus resulting in
disease conditions (Sotelo, 1995b).
1.3 Statement of Problem
In developing countries like Nigeria, food scarcity is worsening due to increasing
population, the Sahelian drought, high prices of fertilizers, restriction on the importation
of foods, lack of agricultural inputs, poor loan facilities, inadequate incentives to farmers
18
and unstable government policies on agriculture are responsible for food shortages
(Igbedioh, 1996). As a result, farmers barely produce what they need to eat with little or
nothing to sell. In addition, many people cannot afford the cost of animal proteins and
therefore, depend solely on carbohydrates diets. The consequences are high incidence of
hunger, malnutrition and increase in dietary related diseases (Barker, 1996). In this
situation, the most vulnerable groups are the children and women, especially pregnant
and lactating women (Sadik, 1991). Predictions of future food needs based on the current
rate of population increase and unstable political atmosphere has further compounded the
problem of malnutrition and food insecurity. (Sadik, 1991).
There may be no immediate solution to the problem of food security until an
interdisciplinary approach to solving the problem is achieved (Ezeagu et al. 1996).
Therefore information on new food sources will be of value. While measures are taken to
boost food production by the conventional agriculture, a lot of interest is currently being
focused on the possibility of exploiting the vast numbers of unconventional plants
resources that exist in the wild (Rao, 1994). Many of such plants have been identified, but
lack of data on their chemical composition has limited the prospects for their utilization
(Baumer, 1995). Some reports on proximate analysis of some wild fruits and seeds
indicate that they could be good sources of nutrients for man and livestock (Ezeagu et al.,
1996), without taking into account of the trace and non-essential minerals, chemistry the
oils, amino acids and anti-nutritional component of the seeds.
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1.4 Aims and Objectives of the Study
This study is aimed at analyzing the seeds of three plants, Moringa oleifera
(Lam), Detarium microcarpum (Guill and Perr) and Bauhinia monandra (Kurz). The
objectives are:
a. to determine the essential, trace and non-essential minerals of the seeds.
b. to determine the quality of the oils from the seeds.
c. to determine the protein and amino acids contents of the seeds.
d. to determine the soluble carbohydrate of the seeds and.
e. to determine anti-nutrient contents of the seeds.
1.5 Justification for the Study
The study is expected to provide information on the nutritional values of the seeds, which
may serve as an alternative sources of nutrients. The lipids analysis will give an idea of
the types and quality of oils in the seeds; and whether the oils can serve as alternative
sources of energy for man and livestock. The amino acids analysis may be used in
supplementing the essential amino acids needed by man and livestock. The elemental
analysis will give insight to the availability of essential and trace minerals lacking in
some other food products. The anti-nutritional analysis will help determine whether the
concentration of anti-nutritional factors in the seed are more than man and animal
threshold levels.

 

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