The overall goal of this study was to investigate the effect of class size and resources on students’ academic progress and attitude in computer studies at Alimosho LGA senior secondary school. For the study, a survey research design was used. Students from selected secondary schools in Alimosho LGA, Lagos state, were the study’s target population. The population of the research was chosen at random from five (5) secondary schools. The questionnaire was employed as the research tool in this study. The Pearson Correlation and T-test Statistical tool (SPSS.v23) was used to evaluate research hypotheses. The study’s findings show that classroom size affects teacher-student contact, the amount of time teachers spend regulating the class, the quality of instruction, and students’ learning outcomes, all of which impact their achievement of academic goals. As a result, the study indicates that there is a link between class size and academic achievement. The study thus recommends that educational stakeholders, government, and school owners, having knowledge of the components of the learning environment, ensure that the school environment has a well-equipped library, spacious class rooms, and a natural setting, while teachers should improve their classroom management skills and maintain positive student-teacher relationships, which would improve students’ academic performance in computer studies and other subjects.
1.1 Background to the Study
According to Adeyemi and Adu (2010), it is commonly believed that education is one of the most important instruments for encouraging economic development since it encompasses some of the processes that people go through to help them grow and use their potentials. Furthermore, Okeke (2007) stated that education provides individuals with the information, skills, and attitudes required for productive life.
Many variables have been highlighted as being responsible for the deteriorating level of education where it is viewed and established in an endeavour to have sound education worldwide. Among these reasons are ”class size” concerns. Adeyemi (2008) defined class size as the average number of pupils per class in a school, as well as the number of students per instructor in a class. According to Kedney (1989), it is an instrument for measuring educational system performance. There has been much debate on the influence of class size on performance, with some blaming overcrowding as the primary cause of deteriorating educational standards in Nigeria, particularly at the elementary and secondary levels. Others, however, consider this as a simple coincidence, blaming it on other variables.
There has been much discussion on the educational consequences of class size inequalities in several countries throughout the world. Opinions range from academics and policymakers who claim that reducing class size is not cost efficient to those who believe it should be a primary aspect of educational reform. Policy in several nations has shifted in favour of small classes. Over 30 states in the United States have passed laws to implement class size reduction (CSR) programmes. For students aged 4 to 7, the current Government policy in England and Wales is a maximum class size of 30, with bigger reduction envisaged in Scotland. Many nations and cities in East Asia have implemented’small class teaching’ programmes, including Shanghai, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan (Blatchford, Bassett, and Brown, 2011).
The majority of the focus has been on whether or not smaller classrooms result in greater academic performance for students. The degree of these impacts is hotly debated (Blatchford, Russell, and Brown, 2009; Hattie, 2005, and Wilson, 2006). There is some consensus, based on experimental and naturalistic research, that smaller classrooms improve kid academic achievement (Finn and Achilles, 1999; Blatchford, Bassett, Goldstein, and Martin, 2003).
In response to the problem of an overburdened class, certain state governments in Nigeria set out to address this anomaly. To accommodate this reformation, the number of pupils per class was lowered, particularly at the Junior Secondary School level, and new classrooms were erected. This brought great relief to teachers and school administrators, and there was a high expectation that with this reformation, there would be an improvement in teacher output, which would in turn improve students’ academic performance (Tobih, Akintaro, and Osunlana, 2013).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The lack of education financing in most third-world nations prevents school systems from having manageable class sizes, proper classroom space, and suitable class utilisation rates. Because these factors have the potential to influence teacher productivity and student academic performance, this study sought to determine the extent to which class factors such as class size, large or small class size, student-classroom space, and classroom utilisation rate influenced secondary school students’ academic performance in Alimosho LGA in Lagos state.
Many causes have been cited as being responsible for the deteriorating grade of education where it is recognised and established in an attempt to bring sound education on the ground worldwide. One of these factors is the problem of class size. According to Fabunmi et al. (2007), classroom overcrowding and low utilisation rates are prevalent elements of secondary schools in Nigeria. They have a detrimental influence on secondary school teacher productivity as well as student learning and, as a result, secondary school student academic success.
Following the pattern of the country’s educational system, notably in Lagos State, population growth without a proportional rise in facilities in our schools has created a major challenge that has jeopardised the essence of learning. This situation got so severe that over 100 pupils were crammed into a classroom with insufficient infrastructure; as a result, many students received their courses while standing. One may therefore ask how kids might learn best in such a setting, as well as the impact of such an environment on students’ academic achievement.
Overcrowding in classrooms has been identified as one of the primary causes of deteriorating educational standards in Nigeria, particularly at the elementary and secondary levels. There has been debate over the relative effects of class size and students’ academic performance. Eke (1991) discovered that class size had no effect on students’ accomplishment. Keil and Partell (2009), on the other hand, discovered that increasing class size had a detrimental influence on student accomplishment, lowering students’ achievement at a decreasing pace. The empirical question of whether class size has a negative or beneficial influence on students’ academic achievement remains unresolved. Against this context, this study aims to provide a critical assessment of the link between class size and students’ academic achievement, with a focus on certain chosen secondary schools in Alimosho LGA, Lagos state.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general objective of this study was to explore the relationship between class size, resources and students’ academic performance. Other specific objectives are:
- To investigate if there is any significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance.
- To determine the effect of large class size on male students academic achievement.
- To find out if small class size have effect on female students’ academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
This study was guided by the following research questions:
- Is there any significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance in Computer studies?
- What is the difference in the mean scores of male students in large and small classes?
- What is the difference in the mean scores of female students in large and small classes?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The research tested the following hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance:
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between class size and students’ academic performance in Computer studies.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of male students in large and small classes.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean scores of female students in large and small classes.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study would be of great interest to the general public, but especially to school owners and administrators who need to guarantee that their school has enough amenities such as a roomy atmosphere, classrooms, and libraries in order to improve academic performance. Furthermore, this study provides a useful reference for other researchers to reflect on the school learning environment element as it affects the academic performance of secondary school students. This effort would also contribute to the body of knowledge and act as a stepping stone for other researchers looking for better approaches to handle the problem of learning environment and students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
1.6 Scope of the study
The focus of this study is to examine the effect of class size and resources on academic performance of secondary school students in Computer studies using Alimosho LGA in Lagos state as case study.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
During the course of the study challenges encountered were exclusively but not delimited to the following numerous. These are
- Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
- Time constraint: time factor pose another constraint since having to cope in this research which went simultaneously within the time schedule of other academic work making it impossible to undertake this study in large more representative skill.
1.8 Definition of Concepts
Class Size: Class size refers to the number of students a teacher faces during a given period of instruction.
Learning Environment: The term learning environment can refer to an educational approach, cultural context, or physical setting in which teaching and learning occur.
Academic Performance: academic performance is the extent to which a student has attained their short or long-term educational goals.[email protected].[email protected].