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Download this complete Project material titled; Creation Of Utilitarian Sculptures Derived From Fish Forms with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

This study “Creation of Utilitarian Sculptures derived from Fish Forms” is an expression of ideas generated from nature – guppy and tilapia fish, to support the making of sculptures that possess utilitarian value. Guppies are small active freshwater topminnows mostly kept in aquariums while tilapias are members of the Cichlidae family, with squat body shape commonly known as fin fishes. The objectives of this research are to: (a) produce sculptures inspired by the guppy fish form (b) execute functional sculptures using tilapia as inspiration (c) explore the movement of fish in utilitarian sculpture (d) create abstract utilitarian sculptures using the fish. The framework of this research is based on Andrzej projection that a careful study and analysis of the anatomy of every subject enables the recreation of the subtlest tensions of musculature and movement, and to articulate vision with high levels of accuracy. Functional art refers to aesthetic objects that serve utilitarian purposes. In this research, the word „utilitarian‟ and functional‟ is used interchangeably. Muscato maintains that in Mesopotamian art, animals appear both with humans, and alone, indicating their prominence in ancient culture. Animals were respected for their strength, speed, or ferocity and appear in art as representations of those ideas. The study was done in the studio via Practice-Based method. It involved modeling and casting, welding and wood carving. From primary and secondary sources, sketches of the guppy and tilapia fish were produced to understand their features and movement especially in water. The final works produced gives a catalogue of the several traits in these species of fish and more importantly unique utilitarian sculptures. The elegance in guppies and the squat body shape of tilapia allow room for exploration in sculpture. The outline and individual components of these fishes can be manipulated to create an assortment of art expressions. Both abstract and representational ideas of sculptures have been designed bearing flowing and rhythmic figures from the locomotion of fish. Many other species of fish, like the guppy and tilapia, hold unique aesthetic qualities that can be considered and harnessed in creating novel works of art. This study has ascertained the possibility of creating utilitarian sculptures derived from fish forms. It also validates the synergy of guppy and tilapia as patterns that could be incorporated in other art expressions. A total of twelve works were produced, with four in each of the categories – representational, stylized and abstract.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

DECLARATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii
CERTIFICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………………………………………. vi
ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….viii
TABLE OF CONTENT …………………………………………………………………………………………… ix
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………………………………………. ixiv
LIST OF PLATES ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ixiv
1.1 Introduction/Background to the Study…………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study …………………………………………………………………………… 4
1.4 Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
1.5 Justification of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5
1.6 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study ………………………………………………………………………. 6
1.8 Conceptual Framework………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
CHAPTER TWO …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
2.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
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2.2 General Review ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
2.3 Review of Related Works …………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.4 Cobalt Blue Glass Fish Sculpture (Unknown Artist, unknown year) …………………………….. 9
2.5 Steampunk Fish Sculpture by Edouard Martinet (2009) …………………………………………… 10
2.6 Contemporary „Angel‟ Stool (Unknown artist, 2016) ………………………………………………. 11
2.7 The Octopus Chair by Maximo Riera (2012) …………………………………………………………. 12
2.8 Prestige Stool: Caryatid by Buli Master (1810 – 1870)…………………………………………….. 13
2.9 Legs Table by Alida Walsh (1933 – 2006) …………………………………………………………….. 14
2.10 Butterfly Chair by Eduardo Garcia Campos (2013) ……………………………………………….. 15
2.11 Table Ash by Tihomir Velichkov (1999)……………………………………………………………… 16
2.12 Vintage Ashanti Stool (Unknown Artist, 1950 – 1960). …………………………………………. 17
2.13 Bronze Fish Sculpture by Willy Kreitz ……………………………………………………………….. 18
2.14 Copper Fish Sculpture by Alanna Baird ………………………………………………………………. 19
2.15 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
CHAPTER THREE………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21
3.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
3.2 Instruments for Data Collection …………………………………………………………………………… 22
3.3 Tools for Data Collection …………………………………………………………………………………… 22
3.4 Data Collection ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
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3.5 Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
3.6 Procedure and Processes …………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
3.7.1 Images of Guppies ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24
3.7.2 Images of Tilapia ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
3.7.3 Sketches of Representational Stage ……………………………………………………………………. 26
3.7.4 Sketches of Stylized Stage ……………………………………………………………………………….. 28
3.7.5 Sketches of Abstract Stage……………………………………………………………………………….. 29
3.8 Preliminary Studio Exploration……………………………………………………………………………. 32
3.8.1 Step One: Preparation of Armature ……………………………………………………………………. 32
3.8.2 Modeling in Clay ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
3.8.3 Taking the Moulds………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
3.8.4 Charging the Mould:……………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
3.8.5 Coupling the Work …………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
CHAPTER FOUR ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
CATALOGUE AND ANALYSIS OF WORKS ………………………………………………………….. 37
4.1 Categories of the Works …………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
4.2 Green Tail ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37
4.3 Mayday …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
4.4 Twin Towers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
4.5 Home, Sweet Home …………………………………………………………………………………………… 40
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4.6 Hunger Strike …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41
4.7Sports ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
4.8 Fellowship……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
4.9 Return …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 44
4.10 Camouflage ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
4.11 Pregnancy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
4.12 Night Vision …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47
4.13 Small Talk ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
CHAPTER FIVE …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………………………… 50
5.1 Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
5.2 Findings ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
5.3 Recommendation………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge ………………………………………………………………………………… 52
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53
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CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction/Background to the Study
Fish have been a subject in art for at least 14,000 years and appeared in primitive art from many cultures. In ancient civilization of the West, fishes were a constant motif. Fish designs in ancient Egypt were common and showed little change for 1500 years. Decorative fish designs of the Greeks and Romans (often with mythological significance) were adopted by early Christians as religious symbols. With the development of art, the non – religious depiction of fish became more widespread so did the realistic paintings of fish appear during the Renaissance. This tradition reached a peak in 17th century Netherlands. After 1750, fish images appeared in many different contexts. Over the years, artists have used animal forms, and the inspiration from animals to produce art in several ways. Animals occupied an important place in medieval art and thought. Artists readily employed animal motifs, as part of their decorative vocabulary (Moyle, 1991). Generally, the animal form is a subject that has and is still largely explored in different concepts, aspects and techniques. Bozimo, (2012) states that the endless resource in nature is inevitably expressed in virtually every artistic endeavor; be it music, literature, performance, sculpture, painting among others, and the multidimensional functions of art gives it essence to be used in the daily activities of individuals. Nigerian artists like Sunday Chukwumeremeze and Adeola Balogun have used animal forms in different concepts. Isaac (2000) studied animal forms in relief sculpture in his Master of Fine Art research at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria titled: Development of form: A Study of Animals in Relief Sculpture, while Santas (2016) explored the charging cock form in sculpture.
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Animals also carried a rich variety of symbolic associations often drawn from the past. The lamb served as an important sacrificial animal in ancient Near Eastern religious rites, including those of the Israelites. Christians adopted the lamb as the symbol of Christ emphasizing His sacrifice for humanity (Holcomb and Boehm, 2001). The term fish, according to Britannica (1994) refers to a variety of cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates of several evolutionary lines. It describes a life-form rather than a taxonomic group. As members of the phylum Chordata, fish share certain features with other vertebrates. These features are gills slits at some point in their life circle, a notochord, or skeletal supporting rod, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, and a tail. The study of fishes, the science of ichthyology, is of broad importance. Fishes are of interest to humans for many reasons, the most important being their relationship with and dependence on the environment. A more obvious reason for interest in fishes is their role as a moderate but important part of the world‟s food supply.
The popular conception of a fish as a slippery, streamlined aquatic animal that possesses fins and breaths by gills apply to many fishes, however far more fishes deviate from that conception than conform to it. For example, the elongated body in many fishes, and greatly shortened in others; the body is fattened in some (principally in bottom-dwelling fishes) and laterally compressed in many others; the fins may be elaborately extended, forming intricate shapes, or they may be reduced or even lost; and the positions of the mouth, eyes, nostrils, and gill openings vary widely. A random assemblage of fish merely using some localized resource such as food or nesting sites is known simply as an aggregation. When fish come together in an interactive, social grouping, then they may be forming either a shoal or a school depending on the degree of organisation. A shoal is
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a loosely organized group where each fish swims and forages independently but is attracted to other members of the group and adjusts its behaviour, such as swimming speed, so that it remains close to the other members of the group (Wikipedia 2015). In this research, tilapia and guppy fish forms are used. Arrignon (1998) affirms that tilapias are members of the Cichlidae family. This is a widespread group with over 3300 recorded species. Within this family, species are grouped together into genera. The tilapias all used to belong to a single genus, Tilapia, but have now been reclassified into three genera, Tilapia, Sarotherodon and Oreochromis. Tilapia has a squat shape which can easily be stylized to give a quick sketch of the fish during talks and demonstrations. Tilapia is a finfish. Although the general coloration of tilapias is usually silvery grey, there are significant differences between species and sexes, in response to environmental factors and sometimes depending on the emotional state of the fish. Tilapias have small mouths with articulated lips and teeth on their jaws. The males are larger and tend to grow faster than the females (Popma and Masser, 1999)
According to Funk and Wagnalls (1986), a guppy is a freshwater fish that belongs to the family Poeciliidae. Guppies are popular pet fish. They are often kept in an aquarium in homes. They are usually about 2.5 cm long. The males are very colourful. Unlike most fishes, the females give birth to live babies (viviparous) and do not lay eggs. The Fancy guppy is also known to tropical fish keeping enthusiasts as the rainbow fish, missionary fish, million fish or mosquito fish. Although it is widely distributed throughout the world and is arguably one of the most popular freshwater fish of all times, its natural range is in northeast South America. The Common Guppy is a highly adaptable species that can survive and thrive in a variety of relatively “harsh”
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environments. They are found in almost every freshwater body accessible to them, but prefer smaller streams and still pools rather than large, deep, or flowing rivers. Because of their high tolerance to salt water, they have also populated brackish water estuaries (Tropical-fish.com 2015). Rikowskiy (2015) alleges that male guppies have the tendency to harass females. They chase them around the tank constantly and display their colours in front of the females in an attempt to mate. The researcher used male and female guppy fish as well as tilapia fish to create functional objects of aesthetic appeal.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
From available literature, it seems that there is hardly any documented scholarly work using the fish form to derive functional expressions in sculpture; however Bozimo (2012) used croaker fish to explore masks in sculpture. The problem of this study is centered on using forms derived from the fish to create utilitarian sculptures, thereby narrowing the gap between form and function.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this research is to create utilitarian sculptures using fish forms, while the objectives are to:
i. produce sculptures inspired by the guppy fish form
ii. execute functional sculptures using tilapia as inspiration
iii. explore the movement of fish in utilitarian sculpture
iv. create abstract utilitarian sculptures using the fish forms
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1.4 Research Questions
i. How can sculptures inspired by guppy fish form be produced?
ii. What are the possibilities of producing functional sculptures inspired by tilapia?
iii. In what ways can movement of fish be explored in utilitarian sculptures?
iv. How can abstract utilitarian sculpture be created using the fish forms?
1.5 Justification of the Study
Fish forms have been a constant subject in art for at least 14,000 years. Primitive art from many cultures have also exhibited fish forms in their designs and their embellishments bordered on motifs. The Egyptians showed fish forms in their designs which were common and almost consistent for 1500 years The reason for this research is to improve the aesthetic quality of utilitarian object, using the structure and movement of fish. Secondly, to promote the idea of creating and representing functional art using the fish form.
1.6 Significance of the Study
In exploring possibilities of creating three-dimensional pieces that have utilitarian form, there are probable results to achieve, which include enhanced sculptures of more than one media and innovative representations of stylization from natural forms. Hence, the importance of this study is that it enhances the creation of sculptural pieces that have both aesthetic and functional value.
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1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this research is limited to two of the fishes from the Cichlidae family of over 3,300 species, which is the guppy and tilapia fish. They were selected based on the researcher‟s preference, and also for their availability and proximity.
1.8 Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework for this study is based on Andrzej‟ (2014) projection that says, A careful study and analysis of the anatomy of every subject enables the recreation of the subtlest tensions of musculature and movement, and to articulate vision with high levels of accuracy. This deep understanding of physical characteristics gives the artist ability to manipulate and create something new, rather than recreate the reality. This research therefore embarked on an analysis of the anatomy of fish; the gill slits, squat shape body, tail and fins among other features as source of inspiration to create utilitarian sculptures.
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