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Design And Implementation Of Anti-Fraud Payment System In E-Commerce Sector

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii

CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii

DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v

TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vi

LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ix

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… x

CHAPTER ONE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

1.3 MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3

1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY……………………………………………………………………………………… 3

1.5 OUTLINE OF METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS………………………………………………………………………………………. 4

1.9 ORGANISATION OF THE PROJECT……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

CHAPTER TWO……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

REVIEW OF LITERATURE…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

2.1 HISTORY OF E-COMMERCE……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

2.2 HISTORY OF E-PAYMENTS………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8

2.3 RESEARCH WORK ON E-PAYMENT SYSTEMS…………………………………………………………………………. 9

CHAPTER THREE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

3.1.1 FACTS FINDING……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

3.1.2 ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM(S)…………………………………………………………………………….. 16

3.2.1 SYSTEM DESIGN…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

3.2.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE DESIGN OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM………………………………………………… 18

3.2.3 FACTORS CONSIDERED IN THE DESIGN OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM……………………………… 18

3.2.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM FLOWCHART………………………………………………………………………………………… 19

3.3 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM……………………………………………………….. 19

3.4 DATABASE DESIGN OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM………………………………………………………………….. 19

3.5 DATABASE SPECIFICATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

3.6 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

3.6.1 USER END……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

3.6.2 ADMIN END……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

3.7.1 MODELLING THE PROPOSED SYSTEM…………………………………………………………………………………. 27

3.7.2 USE CASE DIAGRAM……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28

3.7.3 CLASS DIAGRAM…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28

3.7.4 CHOICE OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE……………………………………………………………………………. 28

CHAPTER FOUR……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULT…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29

4.2 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE SELECTION……………………………………………………………………………… 29

4.3 REQUIREMENT DEFINITION……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

4.4 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS…………………………………………………………………….. 30

4.5 COMMUNICATION INTERFACES…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

4.6 SYSTEM MAINTENANCE………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32

4.8 APPLICATION INTERFACE………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33

4.9 SYSTEM TESTING……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33

CHAPTER FIVE……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34

CONCLUSION, SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION…………………………………………………………………… 34

5.1 SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34

5.2 CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34

5.3 RECOMMENDATION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35

REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 : Four Aspects that Characterize Electronic Payment Systems…………………………………………………………. 12

Figure 2.2 : Classifications of Electronic Payment Systems…………………………………………………………………………….. 14

Figure 3 .1 System Flowchart……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Figure 3.4  The use case of the user section integrated with the admin section…………………………………………………… 34

Figure 3.5  use case diagram showing the user interaction……………………………………………………………………………… 35

Figure 3.6  Class diagram of the system……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36

Figure 4.1 Homepage of the system………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Figure 4.2 The login module…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………43

Figure 4.3 The registration module……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….44

Figure 4.4 The e payment gateway section……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..45

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 : User Table………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

Table 3.2  Shopping Cart Table…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

Table 3 .3 Orders Table……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Table 3.4 : Shipping Table…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

Table 3.5 : Credit Card Details……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24

Table 4.1 : Minimum Hardware Requirements………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30

Table 4.2 : Minimum Software Requirements………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….31

Table 4.3 : Development Tools………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Commerce can be described as the exchange of goods and services especially on a large scale. Commerce or the commercial sector is most important considering the health of an economy and can be argued as the primary drive of a good economy. For this reason, it becomes very necessary to ensure a legitimate trust between parties; that is, a reduction of possibility of fraud.

Fraudulent behaviour undermines integrity of commerce and commercial operations in a given society. Inter societal or international business would at times take a back seat in those places. For example, in Nigeria, credit/debit card fraud has placed a stain on the Nigerian online markets and if care is not taken there would be a lot less involvement with the international community in terms of e-commerce.

Traditional commerce before the twenty-first century was limited to a physical contact between buyer and seller for a particular good or service. This method, though rather mechanical, slow and tedious, at least had a high level of trust in the transaction made. In the ICT powered age, however, a lot of commerce can be done online and can be susceptible to fraud if such loopholes are not taken care of. This project aims to bring together the integrity of the traditional physical method and the ease of the information age to provide an optimum commercial experience.

E-commerce as an idea attempts to move towards an optimum result of transactions. E-commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer (which this project looks to secure), supply chain management, internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange, inventory management systems and automated data collection systems. The idea of an e-commerce or online shopping system was studied in the 1970s academically notably at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and was used to facilitate cannabis sale between the students at the University of Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and the computer science students at the Massachusetts institute of Technology.  and first implemented privately as relatively early as 1981 by Thomson Holidays in the United Kingdom and connected 66 travel agents around England.

Papameletiou (1999) noticed in his work: “Study on Electronic Payment Systems for the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs and Industrial Policy of the European Parliament”;  a direct relation between the development of e-payment systems and the growth of e-commerce. As payment gateways like Stripe, PayPal and Paystack began to gain ground,the e-commerce sector that we see today including Amazon, e-bay, Jumia, Konga just to name a few, have grown in huge proportions.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Fraud represents a major problem and the biggest white-collar crime in today’s society. This situation has been made alarmingly worse by the emerging global village of the World Wide Web. Specifically, such effects of electronic fraud which linger and need to be solved include:

  1. Charge backs which is a sum that must be returned by the merchant to the cardholder after a fraudulent transaction.
  2. Loss of profit for the merchant as the good would be ‘sold’ to the fraudster.

Dani and Krishna (2001) claim: “one of the main bottlenecks in the growth of e-commerce is lack of suitable payment instrument and corresponding Electronic Payment System.”

1.3  MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY

This study was motivated by the fact that the world in general is moving persistently towards technological applications which offer convenience. This convenience would also call for a meticulously carefully designed system so as to maintain a high level of trust between buyers and sellers. Another motivation is to put an end to or at least reduce to the barest minimum instances of payment system fraud.

1.4  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the design and implementation of an anti-fraud payment system is to:

  1. Design a buyer/seller registration system with a facility to verify and authenticate users
  2. Implement a system that reduces the risk of fraud
  3. Improve constantly the verification and authentication facility

1.5  OUTLINE OF METHODOLOGY

The implementation of this idea and project was done with the user of the server-side programming language PHP and the MySQL database querying language. This will also be hosted as a web application on an online domain.

1.6  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study covers online payment at least in the Nigerian society and also internationally. It focuses particularly on the e-commerce sector. We also examine challenges and techniques to address them. For this project we would examine on a smaller scale and test it before then broadening the scope.

1.7  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is very significant in studying, analyzing and postulating more efficient and trustworthy ways of implementing e-commerce businesses. It also helps the case for an e-payment system to be used across sectors of the economy and society at large.

1.8  OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

  • E-COMMERCE: E-commerce(Electronic commerce) refers to buying and selling of goods or services using the internet, and the transfer of money and data to execute these transactions
  • FRAUD: This refers to wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain.
  • E-PAYMENT: E-payment (electronic payment) in short, can be simply defined as paying for goods or services on the internet. It includes all financial operations using electronic devices, such as computers, smartphones or tablets. E-payments come with various methods, like credit or debit card payments or bank transfers.
  • ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE: Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is the electronic interchange of business information using a standardized format; a process which allows one company to send information to another company electronically rather than with paper. Business entities conducting business electronically are called trading partners.
  • FRAUD REPORTING: Fraud reporting refers to a process of finding potentially fraudulent behaviour in a system and documenting for investigation and mitigation.
  • FRAUD MITIGATION: Fraud mitigation is simply the process by which instances and potential instances of fraudulent behaviour are met with appropriate action, control or even prevention.

1.9 ORGANISATION OF THE PROJECT

The project is organized such that; Chapter One gives a brief introduction in form of the Background of the Study of payment systems in e-commerce. In Chapter Two, we have a broad look at the related implementations of e-commerce systems. Chapter Three examines the System Architecture, the system design and analysis. Chapter Four presents the implementation of the project using necessary programming languages and development models. It also presents the result of testing carried out. Chapter Five rounds off the project work with the summary, conclusions and recommendations for future works.

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