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Download this complete Project material titled; Design, Construction And Performance Evaluation Of A Liquified Petroleum Gas Incubator with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

Studies showed that the use of an automated incubator powered from the mains electricity, a solar powered incubator or the kerosene type incubator for the production of day-old chicks is either very expensive to manage or ineffective in operation. Hence, this research work is aimed at designing, fabrication and testing of an automated incubator powered by energy generated from burning of Liquified Petroleum Gas with the use of a micro-controller device. A micro-controller device was developed in order to achieve a timed automated sparking mechanism for a Liquified Petroleum Gas burner and egg crates turner. The micro-controller, which has a screen display of temperature and humidity readouts, has the sole responsibility of maintaining a steady temperature and humidity inside the incubator chamber. A 3D model of the designed incubator was produced using Solidworks software package. Performance evaluation carried out on the incubator revealed that seventy-nine (79) eggs hatched successfully out of one hundred and twenty (120) eggs set for hatching. This represents about 65% of the eggs set. Also fifteen kilogram (15 kg) of LPG was consumed during the incubation process. This cost about four thousand and eighty naira (N4,080:00). Since only seventy-nine (79) eggs hatched successfully after incubation, this translates to an incubating cost of fifty one naira sixty five kobo (N51:65k) per chick. Finally, the incubator was able to maintain the optimum temperature and humidity of 37.5 0C and 45% respectively during performance evaluation test.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Cover page ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Title Page ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………i
Declaration …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
Certification ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii
Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………iv
Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v
Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………vi
Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vii
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………ix
List of Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. x
List of Plates ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..xi
List of Appendices ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xii
Abbreviations and Nomenclature ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xiii
Chapter One …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Background of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
1.3 Present Work …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Work ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
1.5 Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
1.6 Justification for the Work ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.7 Scope of Study ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
Chapter Two ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
2.0 Literature Review ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
2.1 Incubators ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
2.2 Classification of Incubators ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10
2.2.1 Natural incubation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11
2.2.2 Artificial incubation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
2.3 Incubating Conditions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13
2.4 Design Theories ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
2.4.1 Theory of heat exchange …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
2.4.2 Optimum incubation temperature ………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
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2.5 Past Research work on Incubator Fabrication …………………………………………………………………………….. 20
Chapter Three …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
3.0 Materials and Methods …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
3.1 Description of the Cabinet Incubator ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
3.2 Research Materials, Tools and Equipment ……………………………………………………………………………….. 27
3.3 Control Design ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
3.4 Design Considerations …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
3.5 Design Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
3.5.1 Definition of Terms …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33
3.5.2 Egg rotation illustration ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
3.6 Design Calculation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
3.6.1 Calculation for crate number ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 35
3.6.2 Calculation for shear stress and bending moments …………………………………………………………………. 35
3.6.3 Calculation for heat requirement …………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
3.7 Fabrication of the Incubator …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
3.8 Cost Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
3.9 Experimental Procedure ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
Chapter Four ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50
4.0 Results and Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
4.1 Results ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 50
4.2 Discussion of Results ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
Chapter Five ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 64
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 64
5.1 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
5.2 Recommendations ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65
5.3 Contribution to Knowledge ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 65
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Poultry production forms an important component of Nigeria’s livestock sub-sector. As a provider of employment and income, poultry production constitutes an important form of livelihood for rural and urban dwellers. Poultry farmers who are well spread all over the different geographical zones of the country engaged in the production of meat, eggs, day-old chicks, poultry manure, etc. for rural, urban and sub-urban populations.
An egg incubator is equipment which provides opportunity for farmers to produce chicks from eggs without the consent of the mother hen. There are majorly two types of incubation viz; natural and artificial incubation. The most important difference between natural and artificial incubation is the fact that in natural incubation mother hen provides warmth by contact rather than surrounding the egg with warm air as it is in artificial incubation. An Egg incubator is an enclosure which has controlled temperature, humidity, and ventilation for hatching of poultry eggs such as chicken eggs, turkey eggs, quail eggs, guinea fowl eggs, etc. (University of Illinois, 2014)
Study of the chicken egg and its development from the un-incubated stage to the emergence of the chick from the shell has been interesting. The developing chick in an egg is called an embryo, and a careful study of the different stages of embryonic development uncovered many interesting facts. Incubation of eggs shows the effects of heat, air, and moisture on hatchability. It shows how an egg is formed, their different parts and their functions, and how a chick embryo develops. (University of Illinois, 2014)
Eggs have been incubated by artificial means for thousands of years. Both the Chinese and the Egyptians are credited with originating artificial incubation procedures. The Chinese developed a method in which they burned charcoal to supply the heat while the Egyptians constructed large brick incubators that they heated with fires right in the rooms where the eggs were incubated. Over the years
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incubators have been refined and developed so that they are almost completely automatic. (University of Illinois, 2014)
Modern commercial incubators are heated by electricity. They have automatic egg-turning devices, and are equipped with automatic controls to maintain the proper levels of heat, humidity, and air exchange. Both still-air and forced-draft incubators are used in hatcheries. However, all the new commercial incubators are forced-draft; that is; they have fans to circulate the air. They are capable of maintaining more even temperature, humidity, and oxygen levels than still-air incubators. (University of Illinois, 2014)
More so, poultry industry has become one of the most efficient producers of protein for human consumption since 20th century. It expanded rapidly during World War II because of the shortage of beef and pork, which require a much longer time to develop; only seven weeks are required to produce a broiler and five months to produce a laying hen (Benjamin, 2012). More recently, in response to public concern over dietary fat, poultry has again become a popular substitute for beef and pork.
On the other hand, the use of energy conservation principle has led to the achievement of Energy Integrated Poultry Farm (EIPF). This farming system creates a system of dynamic flow of material and energy within a poultry farm, where wastes and by-products of one operation becomes inputs for another. This system treats production and consumption as a continuous cyclical process, rather than a linear one and in effect minimises losses, transport costs e.t.c. The system maximises efficiency of natural conversion processes and of nutrient retention. In other words, reusing resources and minimising environmental impact.
The system channels the chicken droppings produced within the poultry farm into biogas plants. The subsequent biogas generated is then extensively used to supply heat energy necessary to run an incubator for the whole twenty one (21) day period for hatching eggs. Surplus generated biogas is extended to other energy needs of the farm. The residue from the biogas digester is rich in essential organic elements which are used as manure in farming to enrich the soil conditions for further
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agricultural practices. The farming process in return yield more fodder crops for processing into poultry feeds for feeding the poultry birds, promoting a healthy productive continuous close loop system which can help farmers diversify or combine forces with other complementary operations. Hence, food, biofertiliser (manure), animal feed and fuel can be produced with minimum input of nutrients, water and other resources. The system therefore, helps to achieve the economic, environmental and social aims of sustainable development.
Environmental pressures and economic drivers such as the rising costs of water, fuel and other inputs are stimulating growing interest in eco-efficient production options that minimise resource consumption and pollution. EIPF satisfies these requirements. Because they conserve soil, increase crop diversity and can produce feed, fuel or fertilizer on-site. EIPFs are relatively sustainable and resilient and can do much to support local economies. They can help farmers diversify or combine forces with other complementary operations. Integration can be achieved over a range of scales and can assist in community, catchment and regional planning.
Energy Integrated Poultry Farm provides major advantage over other production systems where waste disposal and remediation are essentially treated as externalities. Sustainable design features percuilier to EIPF include the following (Warburton, 2002):
(i) Minimum resource inputs by redirecting `waste` outputs within the system.
(ii) Contain material flow within the system.
(iii) Treat production and consumption as a continuous cyclical process, rather than a linear one.
(iv) Tighten production-consumption loops to minimise losses, transport costs etc.
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1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigeria began to observe a reverse development in the poultry industry from the mid 1980`s. The problem was multi-faceted but prominent among these were the scarcity and the high cost of day old chicks. The effect of these problems was a serious drop in the production efficiency and resultant high cost of poultry products (NAPRI, 2011).
The demand for agricultural day old chicks by commercial and private poultry farmers has always been on the increase going by the unprecedented population growth. The ever increasing demand for poultry meat all over our immediate environment in response to public concern over dietary fat has resulted to a hike in the cost of poultry meat.
The epileptic nature of the power supply in the country contributes to the difficulty encountered in the smooth running of an incubator machine for hatching of poultry eggs. Alternative source of electricity from a stand-by generator has always been employed to complement the energy needs of an incubator machine for the period of twenty one (21) days for poultry birds’ incubation. However, the huge additional cost of power supply from a stand-by generator adds up to the overall cost of day-old chicks upon production.
The maintenance of the stand-by generator on its own incur an added costs, besides the fact that an expert skilled in the services and maintenance of generating sets will have to be available for the whole period of hatching of the eggs. More so, Glasson, et al., (2003) reported that solar incubators have been grossly ineffective and have not yielded the desired results over the years; many constraints faced in the use of a solar incubator were also highlighted.
Automated incubators are presently the source of commercial day old chicks. They are preferred because, production of day old chicks is obviously a demanding task as it requires a steady power supply for the period of incubation for a particular batch of poultry eggs.
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Therefore the use of an automated incubator powered from the mains electricity in Nigeria today, a solar powered incubator or the kerosene type incubator for the production of day-old chicks are either very expensive to manage or ineffective in operation.
1.3 Present Work
This research work is aimed at designing, constructing and testing of an automated incubator powered by energy generated from burning of Liquified Petroleum Gas (butane gas) with the use of a micro-controller device (see Appendix B, Plate 4.10). A micro-controller device was developed in order to achieve a timed automated sparking mechanism for a butane gas burner and egg crates turner. The micro-controller, which has a screen display of temperature and humidity readouts, has the sole responsibility of maintaining a steady temperature and humidity inside the incubator chamber.
This egg incubator is designed to offer maximum hatch rates. The incubator has easy to use digital control system which provides a range of useful features like humidity and temperature readouts. This high performance incubator comes with an adjustable setter to accommodate the hatcher baskets. The setter has a set of three (3) automatically turning egg racks.
Other features Include:
i. Large capacity 180 hens’ eggs trolley
ii. Automatic d.c. fan blower
iii. Programmable automatic egg turning for every two hour interval
iv. Clear, glazed observation door
v. Humidifier
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1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Work
The aim of the study is to design, construct and test an automated Liquified Petroleum Gas (butane gas) powered poultry egg incubator.
The specific objectives of this work are as follows:
i. To design an incubator with capacity for 180 eggs that would derive its heat supply from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or butane gas)
ii. To construct an incubator with capacity for 180 eggs that would derive its heat supply from biogas/LPG butane gas.
iii. To conduct performance evaluation test on the incubator to determine its percentage hatchability.
iv. To determine the effect of atmospheric condition on the incubation temperature and humidity at strategic points inside the incubator.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The importance of having an improved incubation system which is useful in educational studies, research, industrial and domestic purposes owing to its relevance towards improving the production capacity of poultry chicks for a sustainable economy of our community and the nation in general cannot be over emphasised
It is therefore hoped that this research work would introduce a new dimension in the design of poultry incubators that would be simple in physical nature and economic in material usage that would be affordable, efficient and effective in operation. It is believed that the incubator will go a long way in promoting the culture of incubation of poultry eggs.
1.6 Justification for the Work
Quality and dependable poultry egg incubators of different designs and capacities are readily available in the market of so many developed countries of the world such as the United States of America (U.S.A.), the United Kingdom (U.K.), China, Japan, Australia, India e.t.c. It goes to show why serious industrial and commercial research work in poultry production is pronounced in those
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regions of the world. In Nigeria today, the rate of production at hatchery centre’s for poultry chicks are hardly enough to meet the needs of the most populous nation of Africa.
The unsteady and unreliable power supply in the country has a huge impact in the economic activities of poultry farms. The conversion of resources (biomass) to generate an alternative energy supply will ease the energy crisis in the economic activities of a poultry farmer. Hence, the application of biogas produced from poultry waste as the source of heat to hatchery units can prove to be the most economical means so far. Biogas is a cheap, clean source of fuel with no bad environmental effects, and therefore must be research into (Ahmadu, et al., 2009).
This research work when implemented will help to achieve sustainable economical development and safe environment.
1.7 Scope of Study
This research work is focused on the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a liquified petroleum gas powered cabinet incubator for hatching of poultry chicken eggs. The use of microcontroller based control unit on the developed incubator to maintain required incubating conditions during performance evaluation period was also reported.
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