Design And Construction Of Bidirectional Visitors Counter Using Micro controller
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction to the Project
1.1 Background study
1.2 Problem statement
1.4 Aims and Objectives
1.5 project Justification
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2.1 Typesof counter
2.3 Micro controller
2.5 PIC Programmer
2.6 MikroC PRO
2.7 PICkit 2
2.8 Bidirectional Visitor Counter
CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND METHODOLOGY
3.2 The Block Diagram of the system
3.4 software implementation s
3.4.1 Defining the task and problem
3.4.2 Designing the system
3.3.3 Writing the control program
3.3.4 Testing and debugging
3.4 Hardware Implementation
3.4 .1 Hardware component and design
CHAPTER FOUR: CONSTRUCTION AND COMPONENT LIST
4.2.1 Microcontroller assessment
4.4.1 Possibilities to be considered during this system construction
4.4.2 Problem of the overall system
CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATION, CONCLUSION AND CONSTRAINTS
5.3 Recommendation for future Improvement
Visitor counting is simply a measurement of the visitor traffic entering and exiting offices, malls, sports venues, etc. Counting the visitors helps to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of employees, floor area and sales potential of an organization. Visitor counting is not limited to the entry/exit point of a company but has a wide range of applications that provide information to management on the volume and flow of people throughout a location. A primary method for counting the visitors involves hiring human auditors to stand and manually tally the number of visitors who pass by a certain location. But human-based data collection comes at great expense.
This thesis is based on the design of a bi-directional visitor counter using the microcontroller. The main concept behind this project is to measure and display the number of persons entering in any room like seminar hall, conference room. LCD display placed outside the room displays number of person inside the room. This project can be used to count and display the number of visitors entering inside any conference room or seminar hall. This works in a two way. That means counter will be incremented if person enters the room and will be decremented if a person leaves the room.
Applications of these systems are essential in various rooms like seminar hall, where the capacity of room is limited and should not be exceeded. The system will display the actual number of persons inside the room and future improvement to the system include adding a voice alarm system to indicate when the room is full and people can no longer enter inside.
Many times we need to monitor the person/people visiting some place like Seminar hall, conference room or Shopping mall or temple. This project can be used to count and display the number of visitors entering inside any conference room or seminar hall. This is bidirectional counter which means it works in a two way. That means counter will be incremented if person enters the room and will be decremented a person leaves the room. LCD displays this value which is placed outside the room. This system is helpful for counting the number of people in an auditorium or halls for seminar to avoid congestion. Moreover it can also be used to check the number of people who have come to an event or a museum to watch a certain exhibit. Microcontroller is a reliable circuit that takes over the task of counting the number of persons/ visitors in the room very accurately. We will be showing both the in count i.e. number of people entering the room and out count i.e. number of people exiting the room on a16x2 Alphanumeric LCD. An IR sensor isused to monitor the person entering and exiting the room. The microcontroller does the above job. I receives the signals from the sensors and this signal is operated under the control software which is stored in ROM. Microcontroller 89s52 continuously monitor the Infrared Receivers. When any object pass through the IR Receiver’s then the IR Rays falling on the receiver are obstructed, this obstruction is sensed by the Microcontroller.
1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY
In recent times, the number of visitors to protected and recreational areas has almost doubled during the past ten years throughout the whole world (Horne et al., 1998). Now it is estimated that about five hundred million visits are made annually to national parks and other recreational areas. This assumptions based on different ways of estimating the number of visits. Earlier, the estimates were based on trail logs, examination of footprints and deterioration of the trails, various permits and best estimates made by personnel working in the areas. However, the lack of uniformity in the world countries development and consequently the lack of uniformity in data keeping practices have made it difficult to estimate correctly the number of visitors to places designated as public in the individual countries and the world at large. This makes reliable visitor counting not only difficult, but at the same time extremely challenging. During the past two years, appreciable efforts have begun to count visitors to public areas more systematically and consistently. Some counters were already in use in the mid-1990s, but insufficient use was made of them. More accurate estimation of the number of visitors was made considerably easier by the publication of a manual on visitor counting in Finnish (Horne et al., 1998), which has been widely applied in practice. Other good manuals on visitor counting have been published, for example, in Scotland and the United States (e.g. Dales et al., 1993 and Yuan et al., 1995).The problem has been and still is to some extent the lack of systematic and sufficiently reliable visitor statistics.
Reliable estimates of the number of visitors are extremely important for planning and managing the use of the areas in question. On the basis of such estimates, it is possible to gain clearer picture of the use of the area and the sites where visitor traffic is heaviest. Information on visitor numbers help the people responsible for managing the areas to control the flow of visitors, for example, by directing them to routes that causeless deterioration to vegetation and landscape. In addition, visitor counts also help to maintain and develop services so that they better correspond to the real number of visitors to the area (e.g. firewood supply and waste disposal). Furthermore, reliable visitor statistics are needed, together with other information gathered from visitor surveys, for evaluating the effectiveness of the area’s own activities and for monitoring changes.
Visitor counting involves the following distinct stages:
- Careful planning of the visitor count
- Installation of counters in the terrain
- Monitoring of counters in the terrain
- Defining the correction coefficient for the counters
- Counting the number of visits
Visitor counting thus provides statistics on the number of actual visits that have been made to an area. When this information is combined within formation gained from visitor surveys, it is possible to estimate the number of visitors, i.e. how many people visit the area.
In a public place such as shopping malls, religious centers and cinemas, data on the number of visitor is frequently needed for marketing research or statistic purposes. Usually the counting process is done manually by the officers who guard the entrance. If this process is done for a long period of time, it will be prone to human errors. Same goes to a room such as laboratory, main hall, mosque or bedroom. With the advent of industrial and business era in Nigeria and the subsequent establishment of many public areas such as churches, shopping malls, recreational centers and so on, there is a need to make adequate preparation and plans for visitor control and management. This will help to keep accurate information on population density per time, identify potential structural and social risks and effective decision making on issues related to population.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Background reading revealed that the technology of visitor counting had dated back to the 1990s. However, there are some shortcomings present in the existing system. Visitor counting is simply a measurement of the visitor traffic entering and exiting offices, malls, sports venues, etc. Counting the visitors helps to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of employees, floor area and sales potential of an organization. Visitor counting is not limited to the entry/exit point of a company but has a wide range of applications that provide information to management on the volume and flow of people throughout a location.
However, a primary method for counting the visitors involves hiring human auditors to stand and manually tally the number of visitors who pass by a certain location. But human-based data collection comes at great expense. With human handling the manual counting of visitors, there are tendencies of inefficiencies, misrepresentation, time wastage and unnecessary financial implications. With this in mind, it is imperative to develop and promote a digital visitor counter which will be bidirectional in nature and utilise the microcontroller. This will limit all human interferences to the barest and ensure that the task of keeping data on visitors’ visit is less time-consuming, efficient and almost error free.
Here is a low-cost microcontroller based visitor counter that can be used to know the number of persons at a place. All the components required are readily available in the market and the circuit is easy to build. Two IR transmitter-receiver pairs are used at the passage: one pair comprising IR transmitter IR TX1 and receiver phototransistor T1 is installed at the entry point of the passage, while the other pair comprising IR transmitter IR TX2 and phototransistor T2 is installed at the exit of the passage. The IR signals from the IR LEDs should continuously fall on the respective phototransistors, so proper orientation of the transmitters and phototransistors is necessary.
A counter system can be design in many ways such as combination of gate logic and microcontroller. Gate logic is simple and easy but this feature is difficult to vary and becomes complex if the system needs more improvement in requirements. But, by the using of a microcontroller, a system can be more complex but easy to design. This system will be designed on a smaller scale to model the actual system. The model will function exactly as the actual system will. A sensor will be used to detect a person enter and out from the door and send signal to microcontroller. This microcontroller will count up and down based on the programming that been embedded on the PIC. A LCD display will inform the total occupant inside the laboratory and at the same time will display the counting data when a person enter or leave the room.
This project primarily base on modeling of a micro-controller controlled bi-directional visitor counter system that will:
- Count visitor which enter and leave the room and display total occupant inside the room
- Implement two IR proximity sensors
- Identify the counter process (count up or countdown)
- Work in a single entrance and single exit room
The objectives of this project are basically to:
- Design a bi-directional visitor counter controlled by the microcontroller which will display its statistical output on an LCD screen
- Ensure that the system functions effectively, using an 8 bit microcontroller, IRLED phototransistor circuits and is powered by a 9V PP3 battery.
- Ensure that the project fulfill all requirements for the award of an Higher National Diploma in Computer Engineering
1.5 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION
Shopping malls, marketing professionals and recently, religious and academic gatherings rely on visitor statistic to measure their organizational progress in terms of population (patronization), make effective managerial and operational decisions and optimization of opportunities e.g. applying for financial aids etc. Over time, different counting procedures and counters have been employed, among which are beam counters, thermal counter, video counting etc. However, most of this counting systems are archaic, cannot meet up with the current demand for faster and more accurate statistics on visitors. Majorly, most counting procedures depends on human for over 70% operations thus introducing a sizable amount of errors arising from different procedural inefficiencies.
In view of these and many more, the need for a digital visitor counter which is bi-directional is imperative as this will alleviate the challenges of human unnecessary interferences with visitors statistics, save time and money and at the same time giving an efficient output which can be relied upon in any circumstances except for system malfunctions. The challenge of erratic power supply to the system has been well considered, hence a coupling of a 9V PP3 battery with the system.