WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Welcome! My name is Damaris I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.

Download this complete Project material titled; Design Of An Efficient Solid Waste Management And Disposal Scheduling System: A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

  • Format: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • pages = 65

 3,000

ABSTRACT

The Design of an Efficient Solid Waste Management and Disposal Scheduling System in a
metropolis is hereby presented. The design employed ten landfill sites in contrast to the
existing one landfill site in the metropolis. The metropolis was divided into ten zones and a
Hungarian mathematical model was used to get the optimal assignment of the proposed
landfill sites to the zones. This model was applied to the field data obtained from the road
net-work of Enugu metropolis and Enugu State Waste Management Authority. The result
gave a 52% decrease in the total disposal cost of solid waste presently generated.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page………………………………………………………………………….. i
Certification……………………………………………………………………… …. ii
Dedication………………………………………………………………………. …… iii
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………. iv
Abstract………………………………………………………………………….. v
Table of contents…………………………………………………………………… vi
List of figures……………………………………………………………………. viii
List of Tables…………………………………………………………………….. ix
Nomenclature………………………………………………………………………………………..…. xi
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Solid Waste…………………………………………………………………. 2
1.2.1 Solid Waste Generation…………………………………………………….. 3
1.2.2 Solid Waste Composition………………………………………………….. 6
1.3 The impact of solid wastes in human society……………………………… 8
1.4 Brief history of waste management in Enugu Metropolis…………………. 9
1.5 Statement of problem………………………………………………………. 13
1.6 Objectives of the study……………………………………………………… 15
1.7 Significance of the study………………………….………………………. 15
1.8 Scope of the research work…………………………….………………….. 16
1.8.1 Some Important Assumptions………………………………………………. 16
CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Different Approaches to solving solid waste Management problems……. 17
2.2 Fleet and Truck size Selection…………………………………………….. 18
2.3 Minimization of solid waste management………………………………… 20
2.3.1 Compaction techniques…………………………………………………….. 21
2.3.2 Incineration technique……………………………………………………. 22
ix
2.3.3 Shredding or Pulverizing………………………………………………….. 23
2.3.4 Component separation technique…………………………………………. 24
2.4 Integrated or combined solid waste management………………………… 25
2.4.1 Landfill site…………………………………………………………………. 29
CHAPTER THREE – MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Data Collection………………………………………………………….. … 32
3.2 The Proposed Solid Waste Management Design for Enugu Metropolis… … 44
3.2.1 Design Considerations for the Establishment of the Nine Landfill Sites… … 44
3.2.2 The Mathematical Model Used For the Scheduling System………………. … 46
3. 3 The Matrix Equations………………………………………………………………… ………. 51
3.4 Data Presentation and Analysis……………………………………………………. ……… 52
CHAPTER FOUR – RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Results and Analysis………………………………………………………… … 63
4.1 Tables of Results ………………………………………………………… … 63
4.2 Cost Analysis ……………………………………………………………… … 66
4.2.1 Existing Scheduling System…………………………………………………………….. …… 66
4.2.2 New Scheduling System………………………………………………………………… …….. 67
4.3 Result of the Analysis……………………………………………………………………. … 68
4.4 Discussions…………………………………………………………………………………… …. 73
4.4.1 Justification of the Additional Nine (9) Landfills Sites………………………….. ….. 73
CHAPTER FIVE – CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………… 74
5.2 Recommendation………………………………………………………………….. … 74
5.3 Suggestions for Future Research…………………………………………….. … 75
References…………………………………………………………………………………………. ……….. 76
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………… 81

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction.
For many decades now, different research institutes of many countries, private
organisations as well as individuals have been trying to develop or design an effective
method of handling the solid wastes generated in their environment. This is because of
the conspicuous effects of these wastes which have become a matter of great concern
locally, nationally and even globally. The desire to control or handle these solid waste
and its attendant problems led to the different waste management methods which exist
today.
According to Agunwamba (2003), the problem of solid waste management in Nigeria
has become more complex in recent times due to high rate of population growth,
urbanisation, and industrialisation. He also stated that increased amount of different
kinds of wastes are now being generated. Ajagbe (2004) stated that changes throughout
the urban centres in the country over the years, particularly in demographic expansion
have brought about phenomenal increase in the volume and diversity of solid waste
generated daily in the country (Nigeria). The result of this is that heaps of refuse and
garbage are common sight in our cities, urban areas, state capitals and even the Federal
capital Territory. Dayo, K (2011) stated that in spite of the people’s expectations,
observers note that Abuja, like other cities in the country, still grapples with waste
management problems; as some areas, particularly the satellite towns stink because of
the refuse heaps by the streets and walkways. It is clear from the above statement that
most cities in Nigeria as well as Enugu metropolis are not free from the menace of solid
wastes being generated everyday in the metropolis. Also in most Nigerian cities, waste
management is being carried out in a disorderly manner (fire-brigade approach) which
poses a serious health hazards to their citizens (Osuji, 1994). The reason could be that
most of these cities have not embraced modern engineering based approach to waste
management. In Enugu metropolis, the trend is also the same.
2
1.2 Solid Waste.
A good number of great authors have defined waste based on their own perspectives.
Tchobanoglous et al (1977), defined waste as any unavoidable material resulting from
domestic activities or industrial operation for which there is no economic demand and
which must be disposed off. According to Odocha (1994), wastes are those materials which
though may no longer be needed here, may become feedstock or raw material elsewhere. It
implies that what is a waste to someone may be a raw material for another person. Wastes
do not, therefore, altogether apply to worthless substances around us. He also defines waste
as those materials which are generated as a result of normal operations over which we have
control in terms of their production, disposal or discharge. Ayaji, K (2008), stated that
waste is anything that is no longer of use to the owner, which must be disposed off, of
which the owner may not attach any economic value to it. Furthermore, Sridhar (1996),
stated that waste is any unavoidable material resulting from domestic activities or industrial
operations of which there is no economic demand and which must be disposed off.
Wastes are generally categorized into solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Solid wastes
generated in a city or district is usually called municipal solid wastes (MSW). These wastes
can be categorized as follows: hazardous or non-hazardous, combustible or non-combustible,
decomposable or non-decomposable, reusable or non-reusable wastes etc. Solid wastes (SW)
disposal is the disposal or careful removal of solid or semi-solid materials resulting from
human and animal activities that are useless, unwanted or hazardous. Solid wastes (SW) may
be classified as follows:
Garbage: Degradeable wastes from food remains.
Rubbish: Non-decomposable wastes; combustible (such as paper, wood, clothes, plastics,
rubber, leader etc) or non-combustible (such as metals, glass, stones,
ceramics, bottles etc).
Ashes: Residues of the combustion of solid fuels.
Large wastes: Demolition and construction debris or trees.
Dead animals: Remains of bodies of animals.
Sewage-treatment solids: Material retained on sewage-treatment screens, settled
Solids and biomass sludge.
3
Industrial wastes: Such as chemicals, paints and sand, computer parts, textile materials.
Mining wastes: Slag heaps and coal refuse piles.
Agricultural wastes: Farm animals manure and crop materials.
1.2.1 Solid Waste Generation.
The rate at which solid wastes are been generated depends on a good number of factors
which includes: the human population of the area under consideration, the living standards of
the people, and their attitudes to waste prevention and control. According to Tehbanogolous,
George, et al. (1977), solid waste products arise from our ways of life. Smart, N.U (2002),
stated that when living standards rise, people consume more and waste increases. Cointreau-
Levine, S (1999), in table 1.1 shows the waste generation (in kg/capital/day) of low-income,
mid- income and high -income countries. The table 1.2 shows the solid waste generation rate
of some cities/ countries of the world while table 1.3 shows the solid waste generation in
Nigeria.
Table 1.1: Solid Waste Generation Rate of some Cities/ Countries.
Source: Cointreau-Levine, S. (1999).
Waste generation rates (in kg/capital/day)
Low-income
Country
Mid-income
country
High-income
Country
Mixed urban
waste large city
(>500000)
0.50-0.75 0.55-1.1 0.75-2.2
Mixed urban
waste small to
medium city
(<500000)
0.35-0.65 0.45-0.75 0.65-1.5
Residential
waste only
0.25-0.45 0.35-0.65 0.55-1.0
4
Table1.2: Urban Waste Generation Rates.
Source: Sandra (Outreach, 1982)
S/N City or country Kg/person/day
i) Industrialized countries
1 New Yoke city, USA 1.80
2 Hamburg ,Germany 0.85
3 Rome, Italy 0.69
ii) Middle- income countries
4 Singapore 0.87
5 Hong Kong 0.85
6 Tunis, Tunisia 0.56
7 Medline, Colombia 0.54
8 Kano, Nigeria 0.46
9 Manila, Philippines 0.50
10 Cairo, Egypt 0.50
iii) Low-income country
11 Jakarta, Indonesia 0.50
12 Surabaya, Indonesia 0.60
13 Bandung, Indonesia 0.52
14 Lahore, Pakistan 0.55
15 Karachi Pakistan 0.60
16 Calcutta, India 0.50
17 Kanpur, India 0.50
5
Table 1.3: Municipal Solid Waste Daily Generation in Nigeria.
Source: Johnson, E (2006)
S/N State Metric Tonne
1 Abia 2000
2 Adamawa 800
3 Anambra 2500
4 Akwa-ibom 700
5 Balyesa 600
6 Bauchi 900
7 Benue 800
8 Borno 900
9 Cross River 750
10 Delta 850
11 Ebonyi 600
12 Edo 900
13 Ekiti 800
14 Enugu 1000
15 Gombe 500
16 Imo 1000
17 Jigawa 600
18 Kaduna 1000
19 Kano 2000
20 Kastina 800
21 Kebbi 700
22 Kogi 500
23 Kwara 700
24 Lagos 6000
25 Nassarawa 400
26 Niger 700
26 Ogun 1000
28 Ondo 800
29 Osun 700
30 Oyo 1100
31 Plateau 700
32 Rivers 1500
33 Sokoto 900
34 Taraba 400
35 Yobe 400
36 Zamfara 400
37 FCT 3000
6
1.2.2 Solid Waste Composition.
The composition of solid waste generated from any given area depends on what the
people throw away as waste. Uchegbu, S.N (2002), stated that in industrialized countries,
packaging of goods contributes about thirty (30) per cent of the waste and fifty (50) per cent
of the volume of household waste, food and yard scraps account for the remainder.
Furthermore, he stated that in Nigeria, the average mass of waste disposed in big cities is
46kg/person/day. Aliyu Baba Nabegu (2011), in his journal (Solid Waste and Its
Implications for Climate Change in Nigeria) presented a table 1.4 of waste composition of
some zones in Nigeria.
In Delhi- India, Dass Ravi (2007) stated that the solid waste generated in Delhi is
approximately 6,000–6,500 MT per day with a collection efficiency of 95%. The
composition of solid waste in Delhi is shown in Figure 1.1. The chemical characteristics of
solid waste are as follows: moisture (43.65%), silt/inert (34%), organic carbon (20.47%),
nitrogen (0.85%), potassium (0.69%), and phosphorus (0.34%) (Dass Ravi (2007)). Table
1.5 shows the general composition of waste in Malaysia.
Table 1.4: Percentage waste bulks collected in the three zones
Source: Aliyu Baba Nabegu (2011),
zone
waste
Nsukka Lagos Makurdi Kano Onitsha Ibadan Maiduguri
Putrescible
56 5 6 52.2 43.0 30.7 76 25.8
Plastic
8.4 4 8.2 4.0 9.2 4.0 18.1
Paper
13.8 14.0 12.3 17.0 23.1 6.6 7.5
Textile
3.1 – 2.5 7.0 6.2 1.4 3.9
Metal
6.8 4.0 7.1 5.0 6.2 2.5 9.1
Glass
2.5 3.0 3.6 2.0 9.2 0.6 4.3
others
9.4 19.0 14.0 22.0 15.4 8.9 31.3
7
Table 1.5: General Composition of Waste in Malaysia.
Materials % by Weight
Organic 47.0
Paper
15.0
Plastics
14.0
Wood, garden waste
4.0
Metal
4.0
Glass 3.0
Textile 3.0
Other 10.0
Source: Huszain Huzin (2004).
Figure 1.1: Composition of Solid Waste of Delhi-India.
Source: Dass Ravi (2007)
8
1.3 The impact of solid wastes in human society.
The impact of solid wastes in human society cannot be over-emphasized. Land, water and air
pollutions are all because of the accumulation of solid wastes, which also open doors for
disease spread, with consequent suffering and hardship, stunted economic development and
diminished productivity. Anupam Khajuria et al (2010) stated that in developing Asian
countries, the municipal co-operations are unable to handle the increasing amount of
municipal solid waste, which has led to the uncollected waste being spread on roads and in
other public areas leading to tremendous pollution and destruction of land and negative
impact on human health. Uchegbu (2002), in his research work stated that “Cholera outbreaks
or spread in most part of Nigeria had been as a result of accumulation of solid wastes
in our society”. According to him, the life expectancy in developing countries is fifty-three
(53) years while that of developed countries is seventy- five (75) years and the reason is that
waste management is still very poor in our society when compared to that of developed
countries. Most drainage gutters are being blocked with solid wastes; as a result flood now
destroys many of our tarred roads, residential houses, farmlands, hospitals, schools etc. From
observation, most streams in our society are no longer drinkable because of the poisonous
liquid from solid wastes that filters into it. Dayo (2011), in his article stated that water
sources near such waste dumps easily become contaminated and a consequence, explains Dr
Ibrahim Idris, an expert in community health, is the spread of gastro-intestinal and parasitic
diseases. The awful odour that comes out of these wastes is irritating to the members of the
society. In spite of all these problems associated with solid wastes in our society, an
appropriate waste management system if applied can handle these problems and make
human environment decent and enjoyable.
9
1.4 Brief history of waste management in Enugu Metropolis.
Enugu metropolis in Enugu state was used as a case study in this research work because
of the solid waste management problems it suffered in the last regime of the state. In 2006,
Enugu was regarded as one of the dirtiest cities with over one thousand (1000) metric tonne
of waste generated daily (Ezeanyanwu, 2006). Heaps of refuse were like mountains along the
roads and streets exposing the environment to severe pollution.
Enugu metropolis is made up of three local government areas namely: Enugu North
(State Headquarters), Enugu East and Enugu South. The metropolis occupies an important
socio-economic position in Enugu state and Eastern zone of Nigeria. The human population
of the metropolis during 2006 census was seven Hundred and twenty-two thousand, six
Hundred and sixty-four (722,664). Figure1.2 below shows the road net-work of Enugu
metropolis.
Figure 1.2: Road Net-Work of Enugu Metropolis.
Source: Map data Europa Technologies (2009).
10
According to Frank Egwu (2008), the history of waste management in Enugu and
Nigeria at large can be traced by the Local Government administration on sanitation. Before
creation of the taskforce in charge of sanitation, Local Government Areas were responsible
for environmental cleanliness as entrenched in 1979 constitution of Nigeria. This continued
until 1985 when the waste management leadership of Enugu changed baton. The then
military governor of Anambra State, Navy Captain Monday Ikpeazu launched a taskforce on
environmental cleanliness as a complementary to the decree of War Against Indiscipline
(WAI) by Major General Buhari through Lt. Ideagbo, the then officer in charge of WAI. The
people reacted negatively to the WAI because of the forceful and brutal nature of the
military. This was a problem and solid waste management in the metropolis was still very
poor. In 1985, the Anambra State Environmental Sanitation Agency (ASESA) was
established by Edit No: 15 of 1985 and their activities were enhanced by the introduction of
the World Bank Project in 1985 (Agunwamba, 2003). They were responsible for the
collection and disposal of solid waste generated in Enugu metropolis using container trucks,
tippers, side loaders and rear loading compaction trucks used for collection of wastes from
bins placed at different positions, municipal containers and built-up dumps placed at
strategic positions. Disposal of the solid waste was mainly at a sanitary landfill or controlled
landfill site.
ASESA used the method of built-up temporary dumps which gave rise to indiscriminate
dumping of wastes, environmental pollution and spread of diseases in the metropolis.
ASESA also used a more civilized approach in their management which empowered the
citizens to participate in the maintenance and cleaning of the environment. ASESA
continued to be in charge of environmental sanitation in the metropolis until 1991 when
Enugu State was created (Egwu, 2008). Assets and liabilities of ASESA were shared among
Enugu and Anambra State. This affected the number of available solid waste management
equipment for Enugu metropolis. The World Bank Assisted Project (WBAP) on sanitation
based at Onitsha then, collected all their waste management equipment and this helped to
compound waste management problem in Enugu metropolis.
As a result of this lack of equipment, Enugu state established a new agency (ENSEPA)
that will be responsible for managing all the environmental problems including collection
and disposal of solid wastes generated in the state. Enugu State Environmental Protection
11
Agency (ENSEPA) procured new equipment which includes three compactors and some
cubic-containers, but these were not sufficient for handling the volumes of wastes generated.
As a result of this, the agency divided Enugu into zones and officers were recruited to man
each zone. The agency made use of built-up refuse dumps or temporary transfer stations
where wastes were gathered for a certain period of time and then, transferred to the sanitary
landfill. ENSEPA also made use of managing director cum chief executive officer unlike
ASESA that used general manager, and this actually gave boost to waste management in
Enugu state as a whole. Enugu continued to suffer the lack of waste disposal equipment.
In 2004, there was a noticeable problem of waste management in the country, so, the
federal government created the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources (Egwu,
Frank (2008). This ministry will be in charge of managing environmental problems which
include: land pollution, land degradation, erosion control, deforestation etc, while other
environmental protection agencies will take care of solid and liquid wastes problems of the
environment. It was at this period that Enugu State Waste Management Authority
(ESWAMA), an off-shoot of ENSEPA, which now manages both solid and liquid wastes
generated in Enugu state, was established.
ESWAMA was established in 2004 through Decree number 8 of 2004 constitution and
was officially launched on 25th January, 2005 (Ayaji, 2008). This agency inherited both the
assets and the liabilities of ENSEPA, but since then, a lot of innovations had been put in
place to improve solid waste management in the state. ESWAMA started its innovation
activities by first of all re-organizing its organizational structure as shown in figure 1.3. New
offices were created and more staffs were recruited to man these offices. The agency also
divided Enugu metropolis into ten (10) zones: (1) Abakpa, (2) GRA, (3) Trans-Ekulu, (4)
New Haven/ Emene, (5) New Layout, (6) Ogui/Asata, (7) Coal Camp/Agbani Road, (8) Idaw
River/Garriki, (9) Achara Layout, (10) Independence Layout zone (see figure 1.4 below).
The operation bag your waste and Private Sector Participation (PSPs) were introduced.
Bagging of waste was introduced because it is portable, hygienic, reduces litter and stops
odour spread. The PSPs collect wastes from streets and zones assigned to them, sensitize the
people in the area and collect revenue from the people residing in the area, street or zones.
The PSPs no longer collect fees or revenues from the people because of some
misappropriation of revenues collected. ESWAMA revenue unit handles this exclusively.
12
The ESWAMA also procured one thousand (1000) waste collection buckets or dumpsters;
nine hundred and thirty (930) of it was given to Enugu metropolis, while seventy (70) of it
was distributed to other parts of the state. Fourteen compactors were procured, and one of
them is being used at Nsukka Local Government Area (Greg, 2009). The responsibilities of
waste management in Enugu state is now being shared by ESWAMA, the PSPs and the
general public. According to Anyaegbudike (2009), ESWAMA is partly funded by the
government and internally generated revenue, but eighty-five per cent (85%) of the money is
gotten from the inhabitants of the metropolis.
FIGURE 1.3: Proposed Draft Structure for ESWAMA
SOURCE: Egwu Frank (2008).
13
Figure 1.4: Map of Enugu Metropolis Road Network Showing the Ten Zones
and the only Official Landfill Site (Ugwuaji Land Fill Site)
1.5
The chequered history of Enugu state waste management was briefly explained in the
back-ground study of this research work. The management had suffered lack of waste
management equipment, inadequate funding and man-power to handle the various activities
of the agency. In an interview granted by the Public Relation Officer of the ESWAMA, Mr.
Egwu Frank (2007), he stated that the major challenges facing the management are
inadequate funding and operational logistics. In addition to these, he stated that the people’s
negative attitude towards waste disposal contributes to the problems of the agency. The
operational manager of ESWAMA, Ayaji (2008), in an interview stated that the problems of
the agency include: lack of important waste management equipment like excavators,
Statement of problem.
14
bulldozers, pail-loader, tippers and compactors, insufficient buckets (dumpsters),
insufficient funds and operational logistics. This problem of insufficient dumpsters is also
prevalent in Accra, Ghana (See appendix 41). The available compactors cannot collect all the
solid wastes being generated in the metropolis daily. He further stated that the welfare of the
workers is not properly considered especially during the last regime of the former
administrator of Enugu state (Ayaji, 2008).
The Managing Director and Chief executive officer of the ESWAMA, Engr. Greg
Anyaegbudike, stated that it costs the agency more than one hundred and forty million
(N 140,000,000) nairas to keep the Enugu metropolis clean in a year excluding staff salaries
(Anyaegbudike, 2009). The agency at present has one thousand buckets; nine hundred and
thirty are being used at Enugu and the other seventy are being used in other parts of the state,
eleven compactors, one pay-loader and a tipper. One compactor is being used at Nsukka
while the other ten are distributed to the ten zones of the metropolis.
Despite all these efforts made by the chief Executive Manager of ESWAMA, the agency
still have logistic problems which causes in-efficiency in waste disposal in the metropolis.
One unique problem of the agency is that it has only one landfill site located at
Ugwuaji (figure 1.4) along Port Harcourt road. Just as it is in Uganda, according to Michael
K. Nganda (2007) about half of the waste generated in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda,
is collected and disposed of at the only landfill at Kiteezi and as a result of this, less than half
of the waste were left in the open, which litters the city whenever the wind blows and
whenever rain falls. This explains the incidence of the annual cholera outbreaks during the
rainy seasons and the terrible stench from the city areas where the waste accumulated
decays. This is the same for Enugu metropolis. All the compactors collecting waste in the
metropolis will only empty its content at Ugwuaji landfill site. This had caused the inability
of the compactors to collect all the solid wastes generated in the metropolis, which are
evident by the open dumps here and there along the roads and filled-up dumpsters are not
collected for more than three weeks. Some of these mountains of wastes are seen along
major roads in Enugu (see appendix 11 – 53). In some areas, it causes partial or total
blockage of main roads resulting to unnecessary traffic jams (appendix 42, 45, 51,52) and
also blockage of drainage gutters (appendix 44) The odor oozing out of the wastes irritates
inhabitants of the metropolis (appendix 11, 12). Some of the rivers that flow through the
15
metropolis are contaminated with solid wastes (appendix 23, 31, 32). Also, some good
agricultural lands are impoverished by these solid wastes (appendix 24, 25).
The compactors are over-used which causes their constant breaks-down, worn-out tyres,
burst hydraulic pipes and air pipes, and engine knock (appendix 4-10). The result would be
high maintenance cost and inefficiency. Despite all these problems, a good solid waste
management approach will help to improve the efficiency of the agency by reducing the long
distances travelled by the compactors, thereby reducing maintenance and operational costs.
1.6 Objectives of the study.
The main objective of this research work is to design an effective waste management
system that will reduce the operational cost of ESWAMA and improve its waste disposal
efficiency. These specific objectives are:
1. To establish nine more landfill sites other than the former one at Ugwuaji which will
help to reduce the long distances travelled by the compactors.
2. To develop a solid waste disposal schedule that will minimize cost of transporting the
waste generated in the metropolis using a mathematical model.
3. To compare the result with the existing schedule with respect to efficiency and cost.
4. To suggest the use of other waste management methods that will help to reduce the
quantity or volume of solid waste that go into the landfill sites.
1.7
The rate at which solid wastes are beginning to accumulate in Enugu metropolis again is
alarming and if nothing is done very fast, Enugu metropolis may become the dirtiest city in
Nigeria. The deplorable state of these newly acquired compactors as a result of over-usage is
alarming. This study if applied will go a long way in solving the problem of long distances
travelled by these compactors in such a way that the operational (transportation) cost will be
minimized and the life span of the compactors improved. In addition, this will help the
Planning Department of ESWAMA to plan on how to schedule the transportation of the
Significance of the study.
16
waste generated in the metropolis in the future. Finally, this research work will
demonstrate how industrial engineering knowledge can be used to solve solid waste disposal
problems.
1.8 Scope of the Research Work.
This research work is designed for solid waste management in Enugu metropolis. It will
examine the effect of the population of the metropolis with the waste generation of the area.
It will also examine other solid waste management approaches that can help to reduce the
amount of wastes that go into the landfill sites.
The work will examine the effect of creating nine more landfills on cost of transporting
wastes and the efficiency of the new waste disposal method. An appropriate scheduling
system will be used to analyse the cost effectiveness of this method from collecting sites to
disposal sites. The average distance from the centre of each zone to the landfill site will be
used.
1.8.1 Some Important Assumptions.
In the cause of this research, some important assumptions were made. These assumptions
include:
1) A centre for each zone was chosen by observation from which measurements of distances
(along the roads) were taken from each zone to each landfill site.
2) Also, the position of the landfill site in each zone was chosen after considering the factors
affecting the establishment of a landfill site.
3) The compactors are working at its full capacity and the trucks are assumed to be
fully loaded upon leaving the waste collection points.
4) Each landfill site can take care of a zone in the metropolis for forty (40) years.
5) A centre for each zone was chosen by observation from which measurement of
distances were taken from each zone to each landfill site..
17

 

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT»
Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631, 08157509410 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: edustoreng@gmail.com