Effect of instructional resources on secondary school student’s academic performance in accounting
This study was on effect of instructional resources on secondary school students academic performance in accounts. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in markudi, Benue state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made of principals, vice principals adm, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.
1.1Background of the study
Instructional materials are print and non-print items that are rested to impact information to students in the educational process. Instructional materials include items such as: kits, textbooks, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recording videos etc. Instructional materials play a very important role in the teaching and learning process. It enhances the memory level of the students. At this time that education has spread wide and entirely, oral teaching cannot be the key to successful pedagogy; therefore the teacher has to use instructional materials to make teaching and learning process interesting (NIC hulls, 2003; Raw 2006) . According to Abdullahhi (2010), instructional materials are tools locally made or imported that help to facilitate the teaching/learning process. Obanga (2005) view them as materials things which are used to composed ported that could make tremendous enhancement of intellectual use impact the instructional materials The use of instructional materials can enhance the learning achievement. Cronbach (2009) states the important elements of behaviour that provides the base for learning theory situation which consists of all the objects, persons and symbols in the learning environment. Experience in situation prepares a person to respond to similar situation in future. Use of instructional materials can appeal to the individual attention by creating interest goal that will help the learner achieve direct effort. Teacher’s problem of motivation is essentially one of arranging situation with instructional materials in which the learner will see goals he wants to attain. Brown etal (2005) summarized the role of teaching aids as follows:
It promotes meaningful communication and effective learning
- They ensure better retention, thus making learning more permanent
- They help to overcome the limited classroom by making the inaccessible accessible.
- They provide a common experience upon which late learning can be developed. They stimulate and motivate students to learn.
They encourage participation especially if students are allowed to manipulate materials used.
Osuala (2010) in his own contribution said it does not only help to motivate and develop interest on the part of the student, but also help to bring about an enhance respect for teacher’s knowledge of the subject. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or both to the sense organs during teaching (Aginna-Obu 2000).
The nature of the learning and the wide range of student’s abilities in the average classroom necessitate a high degree of teachers and experience in the method of presenting the subject matter. This has been truncated with the unavailability of instructional materials in schools.
However, a common goal a teacher carries wherever he is, is to make lesson presentation vitally fresh, stimulating and testing for their students. This will help the teacher to individualize the learning method as well as the content and also working according to the student’s need. This goal can be reached most effectively through the use of instructional materials.
The need to emphasis on the use and importance of instructional materials in any learning and teaching environment cannot be underestimated. For any learning to take place, the teacher has to make use of these materials that would enable him to teach effectively.
Equipment and other instructional materials to some extent determine the method the teacher uses in teaching biology. The method adopted could be demonstration, experimental, discussion etc.
It is generally agreed by both teachers and school administrator that apart from the chalkboard and textbooks which are often available for the teacher to use, there are other materials that aid or are capable of complementing the teacher’s effort in teaching/learning process. Those materials are commonly called “instructional materials”. One of the reasons why students in our secondary schools sometime find it difficult to comprehend immediately what is being taught by the teacher is the non-availability of instructional materials that can easily convey the message of the lesson to the learners. Orji (2000) asserts that teaching aid is “the guidance of learning activities” that “a teacher uses to motivate and arouse student’s desire to learn”.
According to MOE (1994), material resources such as textbooks, stationery, furniture, equipment and recreational facilities are essential to effective education and also positively influence academic performance. As Adedeji and Owoeye (2002) indicate, availability of physical material resources is of importance to any educational endeavor. They were of the view that adequate school building, classroom furniture and other instructional facilities are imperative for the attainment of any educational objectives. To them, the resource situation in an educational institution is a major determinant of secondary school performance. Teaching resources/materials are the items the teacher uses to make lessons interesting and for students to easily understand lessons and should therefore be provided in the right quantities for effective teaching and learning Sekyere (2002).
Teaching-learning resources vary from very simple and inexpensive ones such as the chalkboard, textbooks, flat pictures diagrams, illustrations and maps, to more complex and expensive ones such as television, projectors, computers, slides and filmstrip projectors Tamakloe, Amedahe and Atta (2005). In the opinion of Amankrah (1996), most schools lacked teaching and learning resources/materials and even where they are available, there are few or limited copies of textbooks. Abban (1973) sees the unavailability of teaching and learning resources/materials as causing the teachers to be authoritarian in the sense that students tend to be passive recipients of the teacher’s ideas, views and belief. It can be seen clearly that this is a major setback to the learning of any subject. In the teaching and learning situation, students are motivated to learn more when there are enough teaching and learning resources/materials. This is because students are motivated to do further readings, conduct research to find out new information which affects student’s performance.
In Ghana, only a few schools have access to conventional teaching and learning resources while many teachers and students have no access and the training to handle sophisticated information communication gadgets. Adedeji and Owoeye (2002) found out that the quantity of physical or material resources allocated to a school has no significant relationship with the academic performance of students in vocational education if the human resource is not equipped to use them. According to Squire (2002), it is not enough to have the necessary resources organized in a manageable framework without a proper delivery channel. Tamakloe et al (2005) noted that the mere use of teaching learning materials or resources does not guarantee effective communication or effective teaching. However, it is their careful selection and skilful handling by teacher that renders them useful in facilitating teaching and learning.
From the fore-going statement, it can be agreed that for effective learning to take place, a student need to be properly guided by the teacher by way of employing various method and means through which his teaching could be meaningful.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In spite of the importance of instructional materials to academic performance of students, it is observed that most students complain of being taught principles that seem to be abstract in nature.
It also appears teaching and learning resources/materials have a positive influence on the teaching and learning of any subject. It is therefore important for teachers to become familiar with the various types of instructional materials as well as the values that can be derived from their proper use. Despite the enormous importance of teaching and learning resources on academic performance of students in teaching and learning process, in Nigeria using selected secondary schools in markurdi as a case study it appears most schools have limited or no teaching and learning resources/materials. In some cases most teachers also face difficulties in handling some of the teaching and learning resources/materials and the improper handling of teaching and learning resources/materials can negatively influence academic performance of students in any subject.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- To examine the availability of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of accounting in markurdi.
- To determine the effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of accounting students
- To examine the extent financial accounting teachers and students see teaching and learning resources/materials in the teaching and learning process.
HO: There is no availability of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of accounting in markurdi
HI: There is the availability of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of accounting in markurdi
HO: there is no effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of accounting students
HI: there is effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of accounting students
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The research findings would assist policy makers (the officers of Federal Ministry of Education (FME) and relevant curriculum agencies) because, they will be further informed on the use of instructional materials for teachers and learners.
The research outcome would also be of benefit to administrators of schools (principals, H.O.D, and counsellors etc) the need for teachers to understand the effect in the use of the available instructional materials. If a teacher within the school context is highly motivated and encouraged by his immediate supervisors, he will appreciate the need to always know when to use instructional materials.
It will also inculcate in teachers the habits of using instructional materials appropriately in teaching learning process to arouse interest and determination among students.
Furthermore, the study outcome will assist designers of various instructional materials. When the various factors that affect the use of the various instructional materials are taken into consideration, the various centers of educational technology both at institutional needs and at resources centers will benefit.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers effect of instructional resources on secondary school students academic performance in accounts. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
They are didactic materials things which are supposed to make learning and teaching possible. They can also be defined as materials or tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous improvement of a lesson if intelligently used.
Is the capability of producing a desired result? When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression.
Availability, in the context of a computer system, refers to the ability of a user to access information or resources in a specified location and in the correct format.