Effects Of Industrial Stress On Management Effectiveness And Efficiency. (A Case Study Of Unilever Nigeria Plc,)
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.10 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.2 ORIGIN, TERMINOLOGY & DEFINATION OF STRESS
2.3 NATURE OF STRESS
2.4 STRESS PROCESS OR RESPONSE STAGES
2.5 TYPES OF STRESS
2.9 CAUSE OF STRESS AT WORK
2.12 SYMPTOMS OF STRESS ON STAFF PRODUCTIVITY
2.13 THE IMPACTS OF STRESS ON THE ORGANIZATION
2.14 THE EFFECT OF STRESS ON PRODUCTIVITY
2.15 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.16 STRESS AT WORK MODEL
2.17 EMPIRICAL FRAMEWORK
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 POPULATION SIZE
3.3 SAMPLE SIZE
3.4 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT
3.5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
3.6 RELIABILITY OF THE STUDY
3.7 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.8 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
3.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF RESULT
4.2 PRESENTATION OF DATA
4.3 ANALYSIS OF RESPONSE
4.4 HYPOTHESIS TESTING
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The study investigated and evaluated Industrial stress on management effectiviness at Unilever Nigeria Plc. The study sought to find out how work related stress could affect the productivity of staff of Unilever Nigeria Plc. In addition, it identified certain factors which contribute to job stress among Unilever Nigeria Plc. The systematic sampling technique was used to select 150 participants for the study. The result of this study revealed that work load was the major cause of job stress among staff of Unilever Nigeria Plc. It was further observed that respondent in order to relieve stress often walk around and visit other colleagues in their office to discuss matters irrelevant to work thereby affecting productivity at the Unilever Nigeria Plc.
Health-wise, some members of staff of Unilever Nigeria Plc had developed chronic back pain, an effect of long sitting hours and standing hours at work. Management commitment to staff issues such as paying attention to work load conflicts, supervisors recognition of outstanding output of staff and the introduction of proper stress management training programmes were perceived as significant steps which if embraced were identified as major contributory factors that could contribute to improve productivity of staff and boost output of staff.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In today’s world, stress has become a worldwide phenomenon, which occurs in various forms in every workplace. In today’s work life, employees are generally working for longer hours, as the rising levels of responsibilities require them to exert themselves even more strenuously to meet rising expectations about work performance. Omolara (2008) described occupational stress as the adverse psychological and physical reactions that occur in an individual as a result of their being unable to cope with the demands being made on them.
According to Topper (2007) Vermut and Stensma (2005), Ornels and Kleiner (2003) Verca (1999) in addition, job stressed is caused by lack of resources and equipment, work schedules such as working late or overtime and organizational climate are considered as contributors to staff stress.
Stress can therefore be described as the adverse psychological and physical reactions that occur in an individual as a result of his or her inability to cope with the demands being made on him or her (Moorhead and Griffen, 1998).
Michac (1997) specified causes of stress as follows: poor time management, unclear job descriptions, feelings of inadequacy and insecurity, inability to get things done, lack of communication, bad personal relationships, quality and complexity of tasks. In the same breadth, Dean (2002) viewed stress-related illnesses as the leading cause for low productivity levels in the workplace. Therefore, this is to find out the effect of job stress on staff performance and management and staff to manage stress effectively at Nestle Nigeria Plc. To acquire a clearer understanding of variable of industrial stress.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The current turbulent environment in which some worker conduct their work require that organization examine their practices working in the Unilever Nigeria Plc is an inherently stressful profession with long working hours, heavy workloads, difficult customer and conflicting demand. The effects of stress are evidenced as increase errors in lateness to work, low productivity and increased sick leaves. Despite the extremely negative effect of job stress on human body and work performance.
It is in this view that this study is being conducted to identify the effect of stress has on the productivity of staffs of Unilever Nigeria Plc. Furthermore, there has not been a conscious establishment of a linkage between job stress and its negative effect on productivity.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are to:
- Ascertain the causes of stress in Unilever Nigeria Plc.
- Find out whether stress has any effect on the productivity of staffs in Unilever Nigeria Plc.
- Find out how Staffs at Unilever Nigeria Plc, handle stress.
- To examine the effect of job stress on staff productivity of their job
- Support of those people who are suffering from stress.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions guided the study:
- What are the effects of stress in Unilever Nigeria Plc.?
- How does stress have any effect on the productivity of the staffs of Unilever Nigeria Plc.?
- How do staffs of Unilever Nigeria Plc, handle stress?
- What stress management strategies have been employed by Unilever Nigeria Plc. to help staff to manage stress?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Research hypothesis are in two forms:
H0: There is no significant relationship between job stresses on productivity.
H1: There is a significant relationship between job stresses on productivity.
H0: Job stress on productivity does not reduce turn over.
H1: Job stress on productivity reduces turn over.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focused on Unilever Nigeria Plc. as one of the major ports of entry in Nigeria so as to get an in depth and comprehensive understanding of what is happening at Nestle Nigeria Plc and makes the research meaningful.
Drawbacks are an inevitable part of almost every venture individuals carry out and overcoming them prepares or fortifies one for other tasks ahead. Even though these challenges to some extent hampered the progress of the study, they also helped in putting researchers on their toes to work tirelessly around the clock in making the success of this study a reality.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of stress on staff productivity. The researcher ensures the effective management of stress for their employees. The study will also add to existing store of knowledge. It will also provide suggestions on how to reduce the effects of stress on output. Again, it will be a source for further research and of relevance to stakeholders.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study was necessarily limited in scope due to series of resource limitations as well as practical research limitations and notable ones were: Time constraint, in the sense that time allocated for conducting this study was very short to allow for adequate data collection and this short time had to be divided between the main academic work which included preparation for face to face and examinations.
- The reluctance of respondents to answer the questionnaire during the data collection process which was critical in providing the needed inputs for the research work. This has been the problem in Nestle, where information flow could be tainted with excessive bureaucracy and suspicion and sometimes fears of victimization by superior officers. Some respondents did not cooperate with the researcher during the data collection period.
- Financial constraint was also a problem the researcher faced in undertaking the study. This is because the case study area was in Western Region while the researcher was in Eastern Region.
1.10. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Definition of term will expatiate more on the following term:
- JOB STRESS: come in different forms and affects your mind and body in different ways, small things can make you feel stressed. Such as a copy machine that never seems to work when you need it or phone that wont quit ringing. Major stress comes from having too much or not enough work or doing work that doesn’t satisfy you.
- JOB STRESS: it can be defined as any adductive demand on an individual caused by physical, emotional or mental factors that requires coping behavior.
- JOB STRESS: it can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirement of the job do not match the capabilities, resources or needs of the worker. Stress also occurs when the situation has high demands on the worker. Job stress can lead to poor health and injury.
- PRODUCTIVITY: this is another method that seeks to pay workers or compensate workers according to their productivity level. Productivity gains are vital to the economy because they allow us to accomplish more with less. Productivity is measured and tracked by many economists as a due for predicting future levels of GDP growth. Productivity can be influenced by either increasing the value or decreasing the time and cost that goes into creating the value.
- EFFECTIVENESS: this is doing the right thing or the ability of an organization to service or what are goals achieved.
- PRODUCTIVITY: it measures how much each employee makes over a period of time. It is calculated by dividing total output by the number of workers.
- PLANNING: it is the pre determine objectives or goals destination. It is a mental process of setting objectives and determining the methods and requirement by which the objectives are achieved.
- EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY: efficiency is about making the best use of resources.
- DECISION MAKING: This is the action or process of making important decisions. It is a process of selecting a logical choice from the available options.
- PROCESS: It is a series of steps and decisions involved in the way work is completed.
1.10 BRIEF HISTORY OF NESTLE NIGERIA PLC
Lever Brother Nigeria Plc (Rc 113) a leading company in the manufacturing industry is involved in the manufacturing of detergents, soaps, kin cream, toothpaste, odibles and fats, tea and coffee as well as range of petroleum jellies and other personal care products.
The company first came into existence in Nigeria Limited compliance with the company matters deree 1990, the company changed from “Limited liability Company”name ot “Public Liability Company” in 6th June 2001, there is new name and new name and new head office situated at Agbara.
The company changed top the name Unilever Nigeria Plc with new corporate headquarters at Oregun Lagos
In accordance with Nigeria enterprises promotion acts of 1972 and 1977, 60% of the company equity has been sold to held by unilencent overseas holding limited Lipton tea company limited and cheese brought ponds infernaturay limited. The company strengthened its foot holds in the Nigeria Limited in 1995 respectively.
Currently Unilever Nigeria Plc operates three factories which are located at Agbara, Isolo and Aba the company started the business of producing bar soup using palmal. Eversince, expansion has taken place to include the productivity of toilet soap brand like Lux, Astral, Asepso, Vim Scouring powder, Pepsodent and close-up toothpaste.
The Aba factory in Imo State, which was commissioned in 1958, produced sunlight and key laudry soaps initially. In 1980, and additional plant was installed for the production of Rin detergent soap.
Agbara factory in Ogun State was commissioned in 1983 for the manufacturing of edible products. It produces Blue Band and Planta Margarine, industries oils and fast and vegetable oil in December 1989. The factory started producing a food seasoning Royco the lipson tea factor formally at Apapa was relocated to Agbara in Order to consolidate the production of their food products in one location Cheese brought products of the company, manufactures the popular Vaseline petroleum jelly and ponds range of skin and hair care products
Unilever range of quantity is distributed end sold at uniform prices all over the country through an established and tested distribution network. Using distribution by their trained staff, the Company has direct staff strength of over 2500 employees spread over the three factories and various distribution points throughout the nation it also provides employment for over five thousand (5000) supplied, transporters, distribution etc.
The company his been dedicated to the production of high quality product for Nigeria for over sixty years.
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