1.1 Background to the Study
Housing condition (HC) is generally referred to as the standard of housing environment. Housing condition is known to affect welfare, health and productivity of individuals and households (Coker, Awokola, Olomolaiye & Booth, 2007; Krieger & Higgins, 2002). Problems of housing in terms of quality appear to differ from place to place. This is due to the set of determinants, including the socio-cultural background of individuals, climate and relief, which make what is acceptable as the norm or standard in a place to be different from what is acceptable in other places. The quantitative inadequacies of housing also differ in magnitude between the developing and the developed countries and between the poor and the rich. It was on this premise that Ibimilua (2011) noted that the poor have inadequate access to quality housing, while the rich have greater chances of accessing good quality housing.
The National Housing Policy in Nigeria was formulated in 1991 to provide sustainable solutions to the qualitative and quantitative housing challenges confronting citizens of this country [Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), 1991, 2002]. It was revised in 2004, 2006, 2012 (FGN, 2004, 2006, 2012; Olofinji, 2015). In spites of these efforts to develop a good and workable policy framework for the housing sector, millions of citizens across Nigeria, including Lagos are living in sub-standard houses. This suggests that Nigeria as a country is yet to get it right in meeting the housing needs of her citizens and residents.
Numerous studies have highlighted the factors affecting housing condition (Fiadzo, Houston, and Godwin, 2001; Fiadzo, 2004; Olotuah, 2006d; Amole, 2007; Mallo and Anigbogu, 2009; Amao, 2012). From these studies it is evident that the factors determining housing condition (HC) differ from one location to another. As Lawrence (1995) rightly observed housing condition is context-dependent. In the context of urban areas in Nigeria, rapid population growth, low economic status of most urban households, inadequate public resourcesand a general increase in the cost of houisng abound. Consequently, studies (Onokerhoraye, 1976d; Mabogunje, 1985; 1976; Diogu, 2002; Olotuah, 2003; Olotuah and Adesiji, 2005) have indicated that the deplorable quality of housing in this country has manifested in structurally unsound and substandard houses in urban and rural areas of the country. Although the UNHABITAT (2006) report reveals that Lagos State has one of the most critical housing challenges in Nigeria with a huge quantity of very low quality housing, there is little published work on the specific determinants of housing condition in Lagos State. A better understanding of this subject can help policy makers and housing experts to deliver good quality housing in Lagos State and other states in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Research the Problem
Previous studies have shown that the quality of housing has a profound influence on the well-being and productivity of individuals, households and communities. However, there has been very little attempt to investigate in order to understand the quality of housing constructed solely by government and those constructed through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) arrangements in Lagos State and Nigeria in general. Housing is regarded as one of the basic necessities of life that is known to be relatively expensive and requiring large capital investment. With increasing population and urbanization, the supply of housing is not meeting the need of most people in many developing countries. Consequently, the cost of housing is on the increase and the rich can afford houses they desire, while the poor are often left with very poor quality housing. Access to quality housing is a multi-dimensional issue. Consequently, availability, accessibility, demand, satisfaction, preferences, affordability and sustainability are among key factors usually considered in the provision of quality housing globally.
It has been observed that public housing as well as those provided by PPP appeared to be of differential qualities. Some of these housing which exhibited lower qualities in some neighborhoods of the state have been worrisome because of the negative impact they portrayed on health and productivity. There seems also to be wide disparity in the housing conditions between the income classifications in many cases; and it is uncertain how the residents appreciate or will rate the quality of the various housing. The physical housing environments alone may not immediately reveal definite housing condition in the study area, since there are many dimensions and many factors that determine housing condition. The uncertainty of value rating by the respondents of the quality of the various housing of apparent disparity between the income housing classifications in terms of housing environment is important in the aggregation of housing condition in the state which has so many dimensions and factors impinging on it.
Lagos State has many unfavorable factors militating against the achievement of high housing standards attained by the developed nations. Some of these factors include dwindling national economy, poverty, unemployment, low educational level, low utilization of local building materials, and high costs of materials and labor. This study will reveal the reality of the situation as they relate to housing condition in the study area.
Housing condition (HC) has been studied in the developed world and in many developing countries (Biondic & Sepic, 2002; CSH, 2009; Foster, 2000; Gandil, 1995; Goodman, 1978; HUD, 2011a; Krieger & Higgins, 2002; Lawrence, 1995; Needham & Verhage 1997; Son, Won & Moon, 2003; Thomas & King, 1972; Walker, 1981). In Nigeria few studies have been carried out on HC or related issues in some cities/urban centres- like Ibadan, Oyo State; Port Harcourt, Rivers State; Akure, Ondo State; Osogbo, Osun State; Ilorin, Kwara State; and Jos, Plateau State ( Coker, et al, 2007; Oguntoke, Muili, &Bankole, 2009; Olayiwola, Adeleye & Jiboye, 2006; Olotuah, 2003, 2006). However some authors (Ilesanmi, 2012; Jiboye, 2009; Oguntoke, et al, 2009) have argued that only few studies have been carried out on housing condition or related issues such as morbidity pattern, satisfaction, correlates, the quality of life in Lagos State. From the literature, it is evident that there are limited recent researches on this subject matter, in the selected residential estates in Lagos State, since those that have been done were only in parts such as an organization or a particular housing estate/neighborhood, or small sections of the state and not to the more comprehensive way in which this study is being conceived. This limited empirical data has obscured the understanding of the levels, characteristics and theoretical bases of housing condition of selected residential estates in the study area.
From the existing published works (Akinmoladun & Oluwoye, 2007; Jiboye, 2009; Fatoye, 2009; Ilesanmi, 2010), it is known that there are variations in the quality of housing in the different residential estates constructed by government in Lagos State. This is seen in the differences in the satisfaction levels by the residents. However, not much is known of the residents‟ perception of the quality of government constructed housing and the key factors that significantly influence this in Lagos. In addition, very little research attention has been given to examining the differences and similarities in the qualities of housing between different residential estates in Lagos State. In view of the fact that housing condition affects health, welfare and productivity of individuals, households and communities, it is pertinent to investigate and understand what aspects of residential environment that can be manipulated to achieve improved housing condition outcomes. It is against this background that the current study sought to pursue the research aim stated in the next section in the selected government constructed and public private partnership (PPP) residential estates in Lagos, Nigeria.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Research
The aim of the research was to investigate housing condition of public and PPP residential estates in Lagos State, Nigeria with a view to identifying the determinants, and providing framework for its assessment and improvement.
In order to achieve this aim, the study pursued the following objectives, which are to:
(i) examine the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the residents in the selected residential estates in the study area;
(ii) analyse the physical characteristics of housing units and neighbourhood environment of the selected residential estates in the study area;
(iii) evaluate residents‟ perception of the quality of housing in the selected residential estates in the study area; and
(iv) examine the affordability and other determinants of housing condition in the selected residential estates in the study area.
1.4 Research Questions
In order to achieve the aim of this study, a number of research questions were asked for which the research sought to provide answers. The research questions are:
(i) what are the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of residents in the selected residential estates in Lagos State?
(ii) what are the physical characteristics of the housing units and surrounding neighbourhood environments in the selected government constructed and government-private partnership constructed residential estates in the study area?
(iii) how do the residents in these estates perceive the quality of their housing?
(iv) what are the determinants of housing condition in the selected residential estates in the study area?
1.5 Justification for the Research
The study was justified in three ways. The first was the need to understand how the quality of „housing‟ constructed by government can be made to match costs of investments for the benefits of all stakeholders (investors, buyers, residents, professionals and public) cannot be over-emphasized. Second, was the need to assess the physical characteristics of the housing that have been provided, the personal attributes of the residents and the qualities attained as the outcome of the assessment. The dovetailing of these into establishing the relationship of these attributes was very important. The need to provide useful information to architects and other housing professionals for planning, designing and constructing residential environments was also vital and need to be addressed. Third, the present study was of necessity in view of the magnitude of urbanization in the Lagos megacity which is being accommodated by Lagos State, leading to increasing population, acute shortage of housing (from literature), and the need to finding lasting solutions as may relate to housing condition issues in the Lagos State.
Therefore, this study sought to pursue the research aim in the study area. Generally, going by the fact that there are several dimensions of housing, this study focused on the physical characteristics of the dwelling units and neighborhood environments as well as the perception of the residents of the quality of these two components of housing which is influenced by the residents‟ personal (demographic and socioeconomic) characteristics.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study was limited to residential estates in Lagos State, Nigeria. Lagos State was selected for this study because it was the former Federal Capital and national economic capital of Nigeria. These antecedents made Lagos to have a huge population resulting in high population density, residential density, and residential occupancy ratio. It is also the most urbanised State with the largest urban agglomeration in Nigerian nation and one of the two most populous in African continent.
It covered only government owned housing schemes/estates under various tenure systems and housing schemes/estates owned by government in partnership with private organisations in a Joint Venture (J.V.) scheme also known as Public Private Partnerships (PPP) under various tenure system. This implies that the study did not include housing constructed by individuals or private housing estate developers in Lagos State.
The housing schemes/estates investigated in this study are typologies for low, middle and high income earners. It does not cover the mixed typologies such as those for lowmiddle income earners, middle-high income earners or low-middle-high income earners.
1.7 Definition of terms
Housing: Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction and assigned usage of houses or buildings collectively, for the purpose of sheltering people — the planning or provision delivered by an authority, with related meanings.
Condition: Condition can be defined as the state of something with regard to its appearance, quality, or working order or the circumstances or factors affecting the way in which people live or work, especially with regard to their well-being.
Affordability: In simple terms, affordability can be defined as the cost or price of something.
Urban Area: An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs.