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Download this complete Project material titled; Impact Of Stress On The Performance Of Construction Professionals In Nigeria with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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In Nigeria, stress challenges are usually prevalent mostly in construction industry. The
construction industry is a competitive and challenging industry. Therefore, most of the
construction professionals suffer from stress. This study aims to explore the relationship between
stressors, stress levels, performance, and coping behaviors among construction professionals.
These professionals include project managers, architects, field and office engineers, designers,
and other professionals within the contractor organizations in Nigeria. Furthermore, the study
aims at determining the relationship between different stresses and their associated effects to
Nigerian construction professionals, determining and ranking the key stress factors that cause or
increases the stress experienced by Nigerian construction professionals, examining the influence
of stressors on stresses (stress level) among Nigerian construction professionals, determining the
level of effect of stress on coping behaviour of the Nigerian construction professionals, and
determining the level of effect of stress on the performance of the Nigerian construction
professionals. The research method includes literature review, questionnaire survey and
personal interviews. Out of over 250 copies distributed to the targeted professionals, only 147
valid questionnaires were returned and used for the analysis. Follow-up personal interviews
were conducted with 12 interviewees to obtain more in-depth and valuable information.
Quantitative data analysis methods, including factor analysis, reliability test, and Pearson
correlation analyses were applied using statistical analysis tool (SPSS 20). Based on the results,
the following classification of stressors were identified: personal stressor (personality-homework
conflict), task stressors (work overload), organizational stressors (poor organizational
structure, poor organizational policies, treatment, and rewards, and lack of autonomy), coping
behavior (plan-full problem solving, positive reappraisal, social support seeking, accepting of
responsibility, escapism, denial, and emotional discharge) and impact on performance (task
performance, personal performance and organizational performance). An inclusive stressorsstresses-
performances framework was further developed which summarized the result.Pearson
correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlation between most of the stressors
and each of objective stress level, subjective stress level, and coping behavior strategies. There
was a significant relationship between stressors and stress (subjective and objective) and also
between stressors and coping behavior strategies. Finally, recommendations are given for
construction organizations and individuals respectively in order to lessen the high stress levels
of construction professionals in Nigeria. This contributes to manage the stress and enhance the
Keywords: Stress, stressors, performance, and construction professionals.




Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of contents vi
List of abbreviations x
List of figures xi
List of Tables xii
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Problem Statement 3
1.3 Research aim and objectives 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Research Hypothesis 5
1.6 Significance of Study 5
1.7 Scope of Study 6
1.8 Limitations and further research 6
1.9 Structure of the research 7
1.10 Definitions of key terms 8
1.10.1 Stress 8
1.10.2 Stressors 8
1.10.3 Performance 8
1.10.4 Projects 9
1.10.5 Site Managers 9
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Stresses on construction professionals 12
2.2.1 Stress in general 12
2.2.2 Emotions and Stress 12
2.2 Symptoms of stress 14
2.2.4 Types of personality and the degree of being affected by stress 15
2.2.5 Types of stressors 16
2.3 Causes of stress 17
2.3.1 Workplace factors causing stress 18
2.3.2 External Factors of stress 18
2.3.3 Stress in a specific job context 19
2.4 Consequences of stress on employees 20
2.4.1 Negative effect of stress for employers and employees 21
2.5 Steps towards Stress Management for employees and organizations 22
2.5.1 Employees stress management at the workplace 23
2.5.2 Organizational approaches to stress management 23
2.5.3 Stress process at the workplace 25
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 Framework of the research methodology 27
3.3 Sample size and characteristics 29
3.3.1 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 30
3.3.2 Data Collection process 30
3.4 Questionnaire design 30
3.5 Pilot study 32
3.6 Data analysis method 33
3.7 Quantitative data analysis using SPSS 34
3.7.1 Data measurement 34
3.7.2 Factor analysis
3.7.3 Relative importance index 35
3.7.4 Non-parametric test 35
3.7.5 Validity of questionnaire 36
3.7.6 Reliability analysis 38
3.8 Post-survey interviews 41
4.1 Presentation of Results 43
4.1.1 Demographic survey of respondents 43
4.2Analysis of Results 48
4.2.1 Analysis of effect of Age of Respondents 48
4.2.2 Analysis of effect of gender 49
4.2.3Analysis of effect of educational level 49
4.2.4Analysis of effect of type of company 50
4.2.5Analysis of effect of profession 51
4.2.6 Analysis of effect of Experience in construction industry 52
4.2.7 Analysis considering project nature 53
4.2.8Analysis of effect of project location 53
4.2.9 Determining the relationship between different stresses and their associated effects
to Nigerian construction professionals 54
4.3 Discussion of Results
4.3.1 Discussion of personal stressors results 56
4.3.2 Discussion of task stressors results 57
4.3.3 Discussion of physical stressors results 59
4.3.4 Discussion of organizational stressors results 60
4.4Examining the influence of stressors on stress level among Nigerian CPs. 61
4.4.1 Discussion of objective stress level results 61
4.4.2 Discussion of subjective stress level results 62
4.5 Determining the level of effect of stress on coping behaviour of the Nigerian construction
professionals 64
4.5.1 Discussion of problem-focused coping behavior 65
4.5.2 Discussion of emotion-focused coping behavior 66
4.6To determine the level of effects of stress on the performance of the Nigerian CPs. 68
4.6.1 Identification and ranking of performance attributes 68
4.7 Testing of Hypothesis 69
4.7.1 Hypotheses testing of personal stressors 69
4.7.2 Hypotheses testing of task stressors 70
4.7.3 Hypotheses testing of physical stressors 71
4.7.4 Hypotheses testing of organizational stressors 72
4.7.5 Hypotheses testing of burnout 73
4.7.6 Hypotheses testing of problem-focused coping behavior 74
4.7.7 Hypotheses testing of emotion-focused coping behavior 75
4.7.8 Hypotheses testing of job performance 76
4.8 Case study data/Personal interviews 77
4.8.1 Background information of the interviewees 77
4.9 Respondents analysis based on personal interview framework 79
4.9.1 Discussion of Stressors Identified by Interviewees 84
4.9.2 Discussion of Stress level results Identified by Interviewees 89
4.9.3 Coping Behaviour strategies Identified by Interviewees 89
4.9.4 Consequences of stress identified by interviewees 91
4.10 Results and refined framework
5.1 Conclusions 97
5.2 Recommendations 99
5.3Contribution to knowledge 101





1.4 Background of Study
While today is the era of high technology and modern achievement, a high performance
is expected to be the norm. Many organizations demand for a high level of quality, service
and overall business success, therefore, the pressure is felt on individuals at all levels of
organization. Performance targets are becoming tougher to meet with each succeeding year
and the management staff is experiencing difficulty in fulfilling the challenge. Anyone who
has been ever involved in a project confirms that project environments in general are
challenging and stressful at the same time. This is mostly because of the nature of project
work, which is a temporary activity, limited to a specific time and budget. Basically, four
elements should be taken into account as the main features of a project. These features
includes: goal, group of people (project team), specific duration of time, and limited amount
of money (Bars, 2006). Limitations of time and budget normally confront the project team,
and specifically the project manager with stressful conditions. Limitation of time results in
time pressure, while budget limitation causes resource constraint, and both of the mentioned
factors contribute to high level of responsibilities and heavy workload. In addition, if the
project is conducted within a matrix-structure organization, the project manager has to deal
with extra challenge i.ejob interference from functional managers.This challenge not only
amplifies the stress caused by the above-mentioned factors, but also individually puts the
construction professionals into extra stressful situations. Furthermore, stress is sometimes
caused by several kinds of conflict in the project environment. Although general
management is a high stress occupation, the level of stress experienced by Construction
professionals is known to be even higher due to the conflicting demands of completing a
project on time, under budget, with a high quality to satisfy the stakeholders (Haynes and
Love, 2004).
The construction industry (CI) makes a significant contribution to the economy of many
countries(Powl and Skitmore, 2005). For example in the year 2000, the Nigerian construction
industry is responsible for an average of 5-7% improvement of the GDP growth and over
42% of the fixed capital transformation over the last four decades(Olatunji, et al, 2007). The
traditions, characteristics and output of this industry have, however, also earned it a less
favourable reputation(Kazaz, et al, 2008). In fact, the effective performance of the
construction professionals is said to be the single most critical factor affecting successful
project outcomes(Peter and Andrew, 1999). Construction projects rarely run smoothly. Their
complex and dynamic nature, together with the often confrontational attitude of its
participants, results in the occurrence of frequent major problems or difficulties(Ng, et al,
2005). In such conditions, events can be objectively harmful physically or mentally to the
individuals involved. In the extreme case, when these are seen to be a negative influence,
stress will be experienced. That is, untypical individual responses occur due to the physical
and mental effort needed to recover from being diverted from the normal situation(Ng, ta al,
The significance of the effects of occupational stress in general has prompted several
studies aimed at identifying the causes of stress in various disciplines(Health and Safety
Execuetive, 2009). These indicate that stress can be related to;
(i) physical condition (Braham, 1994);
(ii) organizational culture(Haupt, 2001)
(iii) interpersonal conflict(Grzywacz, et al, 2007);
(iv) personal characteristics(Ng, et al 2005) and
(v) Job nature(Institute of Directors, 2008).
To date, little research has been conducted with construction professionals, with the
exceptions ofPowl and Skitmore, (2005)who worked with site/project managers andNg, et al,
(2005). Theyconducted a study on managing stress among construction project
participant.For construction professionals to perform effectively, it is said that they need to
be nurtured and encouraged(Powl and Skitmore, 2005); work within a system that
encourages creativity and innovation(McQuinn and Kestle, 2008); do “the right thing at the
right moment” (Davies, 2005); and avoid ineffective traditional ways and bad
practices(Davies, 2005).However, as conflicts may arise when role ambiguity exists(Farrell
and Gale, 1999), the origins of stresses may vary amongst different project participants.
There is a need to examine whether the various construction stakeholders can adequately
cope with the stresses they are confronting. Hence, this research is aimed at ascertaining the
situation of construction professionals by;
(i) identifying the origins of stresses being experienced by construction
(ii) Assessing the manageability of stresses and its impact on their performance; and
(iii) Determining the relationship between different stresses and their associated
1.5 Problem Statement
The level of success in carrying out construction project development activities will
depend heavily on the quality of the managerial, financial, technical and organizational
performance of the respective parties(Kulatunga, et al 2006), while taking into consideration
the associated risk management, the business environment, and economic and political
stability. According to Takim and Akintoye (2002), as construction is becoming more
complex, a more sophisticated approach is necessary to deal with initiating, planning,
financing, designing, approving, implementing and completing a project. The common
assessment of the success of construction projects is that they are delivered on time, to
budget, to technical specification and meet client satisfaction (Takim and Akintoye,
2002).Performance measurement according to(Kulatunga, et al, 2006) is the process of
determining how successful organizations or individuals have been in attaining their
objectives and strategies. According to(Institute of Directors, 2008) stress if not identified
and manage can disrupt business and reduce productivity. It also increases costs (for
example, on recruitment and training), leads employees to make poor decisions and casual
errors, apply faulty judgment to important matters. This study is motivated by the need to
improve the performance of construction professionals with a view to identify elements that
impact negatively on their performance, one of which is stress.
1.6 Research aims and objectives
The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of stress on the performance
of construction professionals in Nigeria. The specific objectives are as follows;
(i) To determining the relationship between different stresses and their associated
effectto Nigerian construction professionals.
(ii) To determine and rank the key stress factors that cause or increases the stress
experienced by Nigerian construction professionals.
(iii)To examine the influence of stressors on stresses (stress level) among Nigerian
construction professionals.
(iv)To determine the level of effect of stress on coping behaviour of the Nigerian
construction professionals.
(v) To determine the level of effect of stress on the performance of the Nigerian
construction professionals.
(vi)To develop a model based on the review of literature on the stress management for
construction professionals and final integrated Stressor–Stress–Coping behaviour–
Performance framework for NG-CPs.
1.4 Research Questions
The study investigates the following questions among others that would be answered to
some varying degree by the result of the study:
(i) What factors causes or increases the stress experienced by construction
(ii) What is the level of effect of stress to the ability of construction professional?
(iii)What is the level of understanding by management on the impact of stress on their
construction professionals?
(iv)How effective is the organization stress management program for construction
(v) How does stress manifest in construction professionals?
(vi)What are the consequences of stress on construction professions?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Based on the research questions above, the following hypotheses were formulated to
guide the research:
H1: Personal characteristics of individual construction participants have significant
Impact on the stress of Nigerian construction professionals. These personal
characteristics may include: personal behaviour, home-work conflict, poor relationships
with others at work, and distrust between superiors, subordinates and colleagues.
H2: Task nature and its complexity have significant impact on the stress on Nigerian
construction professionals. This task nature maybe Work overload, Work under-load, role
conflict and/or role ambiguity.
H3: Physical stressorshave significant impact on the stress on Nigerian construction
professionals which may be the nature of working and home environment.
H4: Organizational stressorshave significant impact on the stress on Nigerian
construction professionals. These stressors may include; poor organizational structure,
Lack of autonomy, unfair Reward and treatment, and lack of Feedback.
H5: Stress has significant impact on the general performance of Nigerian construction
professionals which may include task performance, personal performance and
organizational performance.
H6: The coping behaviour of individual construction participants has significant impact
on the stress on Nigerian construction professionals which could be emotion-focused or
problem-focused coping behaviour.
1.6 Significance of Study
The findings of this study will help identify the factors that induce stress on
construction professionals, provide method that will help to improve the performance of
construction professionals in achieving project goals and objectives, and increase the
awareness of management to stress management program for its workforce. The study
further establishes criteria that can be used to access the performance of construction
professionals, with a view to establish criteria that are necessary in the appraisal of a
construction professionals’ work. The study will also provide management with data to
enable them provide appropriate support/incentive to encourage construction
professionals in the performance of their duties. Results of this study can be used as
bedrock for implementing change within the organization, and also for trade union and
government in implementing policies.
1.11 Scope of Study
The scopefor data collection in this study was limited to the following criteria;
a) The construction firms such as contractors, sub-contractors, consultants and
governmental organizations who are involved in both small and mega-infrastructural
projects such as roads, oil drilling locations, gas plant constructions, runway pavement
constructions, railways, bridges, laying of pipelines, sewage networks, schools, housing,
maintenance, public building and governmental building were contacted.
b) The selected construction companies had their own managerial staff such as project
managers or site managers as well as their subordinates (i.esite supervisors, architect,
quantity surveyor or administration staff).
c) Only data from organizations that had their operational base in Nigeria or had an ongoing
project in Nigeria were used for the research.
d) Furthermore, the scope in literature review of this study focused on the aspects of stress
and workplace stress, types of stress, sources of workplace stress, stress and workplace
stress model, costs of workplace stress, stress prevention system, management
competencies of managerial level in preventing and reducing stress and workplace stress
within construction industry.
1.8 Limitations and further research
This study has a number of limitations including:
(i) Based on literature, a large number of stress variables were identified and used in the
questionnaire design. Too many items in a questionnaire survey may affect the response
rate and validity of the results.
(ii) To enhance the degree of confidence of the current study results, a longitudinal study is
recommended to collect data repetitively over an extended period, like repetitive interviews
and surveying over month’s interval.
(iii)The questionnaire survey provides a generalizable study of the relationship between
stressors, stresses, coping behaviour and performance of Nigerian construction
professionals for the study. In order to carry out an in-depth study of this topic,
qualitative research methods are suggested. Further interviews or case studies on some
specific cases are recommended for cross-validating the results found in this study and
uncovering the reasons behind the results.
(iv)In order to explore the integrated causal relationships in the stress management process of
the construction professionals in Nigeria, computer model is recommended as further
1.9 Structure of the research
This research report was organized into the following five chapters as shown in Table 1.1:
Table 1.1: Structure of the research
CHAPTERS Structure of the research
1 Introduction: Included the general introduction of this study, in which the
background, problem statement, aim and objectives of study, scope of the study,
significance of the study, conceptual framework, hypothesis development, and
methodology of study, limitations and structure of the research are briefly
2 Literature review: discusses the trend and roles of CPs, their stressors, stresses,
Stress consequences of different types of coping behaviour and stress
management approaches adopted.
3 Research methodology: included the detailed research methodology,
questionnaire survey design, personal interviews schedule, and the various
qualitative and quantitative analytical methods applied was simply described.
4 Data presentation, Results and discussion: the data analyses and results of the
contextual data collected were shown, the findings from the large-scale
questionnaire survey and the interviews were validated and a refined conceptual
framework was developed
5 Conclusion and recommendations: the final framework results were discussed
and the conclusion of the whole research study was made. Then,
recommendations in both the personal and organizational aspects were included.
1.10 Definitions of key terms
1.10.1 Stress
The term stress has been defined by many scholars. One of the definitions was given by
Fletcher as stated by Rumbold et al, (2012), as a “continuous process that involves individual
transacting with their environments, making appraisals of the situations they find themselves in,
and endeavoring to cope with any issues that may arise”. Stress represents a situation where a
person is under pressure and does not have sufficient ability to cope with it. Stress also indicates
a direct negative reaction both, for individual and organization by undermining the goals
attainment (Fletcher, 2006). Despite causing problems to employee’s health and wellbeing, stress
also affects the organization’s reputation as well as its productivity. The negative aspect of stress
can be seen when there is job dissatisfaction and employee’s unwillingness to their works,
decrease in the level of production and turnover and poor quality of work done.All these are
demerit the demerits to the company.
1.10.2 Stressors
The term, stressor, was used to designate the stimuli generated on the job having negative
consequences, physical or psychological, for significant proportions of people exposed to them
(Chan, 2008). It is a stressful event or a stressful condition that produces in an individual a
psychological or physical reaction that usually is unpleasant and sometimes causes symptoms of
emotional or physical disability. Stressors can generally be divided into four major categories
which are task, personal, physical, and organizational (Leung and Chan, 2011).
1.10.3 Performance
The term ‘performance’ generally elicits some or all of the following notions:
(i) The timely execution of an action.
(ii) The accomplishment of a task.
(iii)Fulfillment of claim or promise.
(iv)The ability to work efficiently.
According to (Kulatunga, et al, 2006), performance will be looked at in terms of how well or
efficiently the project has been executed and how much it fulfills objectives or meets
expectations. The basis for evaluating and measuring performance in this context are the criteria
of cost, time and quality.
1.10.4 Projects
The Project Management Institute (PMI) defines projects as temporary undertakings used
to create a unique product, service or results. In the context of projects the PMI defines the use of
the word temporary to mean that all projects have a definite beginning and end and that the
project reaches the end when either the objectives have been met or it becomes clear that it is not
possible to meet the objectives. “Temporary” does not reflect or define the duration of the
project. Also, according to Turner and Müller (2003), a project is a temporary organization to
which resources are assigned to undertake a unique, novel and transient endeavour managing the
inherent uncertainty and need for integration, in order to deliver beneficial objectives of change.
1.10.5 Site Managers
Powl and Skitmore(2005), identifies site manager as the employee responsible for the
coordination of all site activities. He bears the sole responsibility for the success or failure during
the coordination of all site activities.

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