• Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Pages: 65
  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • With abstract reference and questionnaire
  • Preview abstract and chapter 1 below




The aim of this research work is to find out the role of importance of improvisation in the teaching of integrated science in secondary schools, using all  secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State as a case study. A total of 100 students were used on this study. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaires which were administered personally by the researcher to five randomly selected schools in Egor local government area of Edo State. The method used for data analysis was normal data simple percentage was used to examine the role of importance of improvisation in teaching of integrated science in secondary schools.

Findings of the study are as follows;

1.            To the extends at which importance of improvisation facilitate learning is recommendable.

2.            Despite the high cost of getting instructional materials, teachers in secondary schools take it as a task to improvise for instructional materials.

3.            Pupils easily remember topics taught with the use of importance of improvisation than those taught without the use of instructional materials.

4.            Pupils in secondary schools find it easily to put into practice those topics and lessons taught with the use of instructional materials.

5.            Importance of improvisation when properly used during teaching enhance and lead to better performances of pupils during given assignment, test and examinations.


Chapter One: Introduction

1.1       Background of the study

1.2       Statement of the study

1.3       Research questions

1.4       objective of the study

1.5       Significance of the study

1.6       Scope/limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

Chapter Two:                     

Literature Review

Chapter Three: Research methodology

3.1         Research design

3.2         Population of study

3.3         Sample of study

3.4         Sampling techniques

3.5         Research instrument

3.6         Administration of instrument

3.7         Validity of instrument

3.8         Reliability of instrument

3.9         Method of data analysis

Chapter Four: Data analysis and discussion

4.1         Data analysis

4.2         Discussion of results

Chapter Five

5.1         Summary of findings

5.2         Conclusion

5.3         Recommendations






Improvisation are those things that enables students to have mental picture of what has been taught and to retain the message in their memory for a very long time e.g. Radio, Television, Charts, Micro-Projectors, Still Pictures, Specimen e.t.c. It can be referred to as those things that the classroom teacher uses to impact knowledge to pupils in the classroom in order to achieve his objectives.

According to Ogunmola, (2002) cited that improvisation are those visual or audio visual materials which facilitate the assimilation of organization. Infact, for effective teaching and learning to take place, importance of improvisation are can exist without adequate use of integrated science education programme can exist with adequate use of integrated equipments examples of such equipment are integrated, monitor, keyboard, typewriter, mouse, scanner, printer, duplicating machine e.t.c these science equipments are indispensable to a good integrated science teaching and training and learning.

It is no gain saying that interest in learning integrated sciences increasing in Nigeria. Each local government area is trying t o improve on the production of technology. This is justify for integrated science has totally assured great importance interest role of national power and productivity. According to the new trend of integrated science, teaching has as shown a radical departure of traditional expository mode, in favour of practical and inquiry method to the inclusion of problems solving and active involvement of people in the open minded fielding practical exercise.

In view of this, it can therefore be assumed that unique facilities and equipment are available in secondary school. For practical works pupils will not derive much from the attempt to learn integrated science. It has been stressed by Howard (2003) when he said what we learn is what we do” doing what we learn in integrated science requires the use of practical work. We also have the bear in mind that at least some of the pupils would or may need to become professionally integrated list. Such pupils need the equipment to be able to develop necessary practical skills. Beside, the basic sources of integrated science experience is of course of direct contact which objects and events it’s in nature outside the classroom

Specifically some specific educational reasons to have equipment for teaching was summarized by Balogun (2000) as follows

1.    It enables the learners to develop functional and manipulating skills

2.    It enables the learner to develop problem solving skill and scientific attitude

The acquisition of these skills is the contribution of integrated science education in the general preparation of the youth with emphasis on activities based on child centered learning coupled with pupils enrolment into school in the face of corresponding decline economy. It is against the background that we can appreciate the significance of the question “the important role of integrated science equipment in secondary school


There are many problems and obstacles which hinder the effective teaching of integrated science in our secondary schools. Despite the importance attached to the subject there is no  secondary school in Egor local government area in Edo state where the range of resources available for the teaching of integrated science can be described as being in anyway adequate

This arises as a result of inability of these materials especially now, due to foreign exchange restriction and large populations of secondary schools pupils.

The aspects of this problems will be dealt with in this study which has the survey of material resources required by the teaching of integrated science. In secondary school in Egor local government area of Edo state.

The following specific questions can be asked does teachers in secondary school improvised or substitute for importance of improvisation which are not easily obtained

Are there enough materials resources for integrated teaching in secondary school? What are the materials that can be improved?


The purpose of the study is to survey the materials resources available for the teaching of integrated science in secondary school in Egor local government area.

The study will examine

1.    The availability of improvised facilities in our schools

2.    Whatever and how integrated science teacher in  secondary schools improvise for  materials which are not easily obtainable

3.    The type of materials that can be improvised


It is hope that the findings of this study will be beneficial to educational agencies in Egor local government area of Edo state.

It should be of great important to educational administrates in the distribution of resources to schools

Further more, the result of the finding will be of great benefit to the integrated science teachers in other impact the required integrated science skills to the pupils


1.    To what extent is the importance of improvisation in the teaching of integrated science in  secondary school

2.    Do teachers in secondary school improvise for importance materials which are not easily obtained.

3.    Do students in secondary school easily remember topic taught with improvised materials than those topics taught without improvised materials?

4.    Do students in secondary school find it easy to put into practice what they are taught with the use of improvised material?

5.    Does the importance of improvisation led to better performance of students in secondary school.


Terms that are related to the study are defined below in order to remove somatic ambiguity in their usage.

1.    FOCUS. To give attention, effort e.t.c. to one particular person or subject.

2.    IMPROVISED. To make or do something using whether is available, usually because you do not have what you really want.

3.    INDISPENSABLE. Essential, too important to do without.

4.    SCIENCE. Knowledge about the structure and behaviour of the natural and physical world.

5.    INTEGRATED. An electronic or machine that can store, organized and find information do calculate and control other machines.

6.    INSTRUCTIONAL. That teaches people something.

7.    MATERIALS. Things that are needed to do a particular thing.

8.    RADICAL. Concerning the most basic and important parts of something.

10 TECHNOLOGIES. Scientific knowledge used in practical way.


Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: [email protected].


Disclaimer: This PDF Material Content is Developed by the copyright owner to Serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for Students to Conduct Academic Research.

You are allowed to use the original PDF Research Material Guide you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the project topic.

2. As a source for ideas for you own academic research work (if properly referenced).

3. For PROPER paraphrasing ( see your school definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase).

4. Direct citing ( if referenced properly).

Thank you so much for your respect for the authors copyright.

Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: [email protected].

Welcome! My name is Damaris I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.