This study assessed the influence of media ownership and control on media agenda settings using Nigeria as a case. The core method of data collection in this study was in-depth interview. The sampling methods employed include the cluster sampling and the purposive sampling since the data expected requires an in-depth knowledge of the Nigeria media landscape. The finding of this study review that different level of government in Nigeria which comprises of state and federal government serving and the retired high level public and private official, politicians, as well as influential businesses men and women, own most of the media organization in Nigeria. It was observed that this group of the people is the core newsmaker whose view and opinion populate most of the view, news opinion information disseminated in the media in Nigeria. The findings further shows that the current media ownership pattern and the level of media control in Nigeria actually hinder the media from independently setting society’s agenda.
1.0 INTRODUCTION OF OWNERSHIP CONTROL AND CENSORSHIP
The Specific control over media ownership contained in the broadcasting services Act 1992 are as follows:
A person must not control television broadcast licenses whose combined licenses exceed 75 percent of the population of Australia, or more than one license within a license area (section 53) foreign person must not be in a position to control a license and the total of foreign interest must not exceed 20 percent.
A person must not be in a position to control more than two licenses in the same area (Section 54). Multiple directorships are also limited in (section 55). Therefore a person must not control under see a commercial television broadcast licensed having the same
Is the act or practice of examining books, films, letter and the likes with the intention of removing anything perceived to be offensive? The desire to control speech because of the probable consequences of speech is the health of censorship. Just as intellectual value, ideas because idea have consequences, censors also fear speech because of its effects.
Censorship is rightly associated with repressive totalitarian and truancy of the majority.
1.1 MEANING OF OWNERSHIP, CONTROL AND CENSORS OWNERSHIP
The possessive nature of man and his environment and his natural tendency to desire wealth has made it mandatory on the human fail to stain to own properties in which man has rested interest ownership is the autonomy of an individual over an organization. Ownership is the state or act of possessing a thing or object. In Nigeria, government -.used to own the broadcast media just as it is done in other developing nations, thereby monopolizing the media- until 1992 when private ownership of the broadcast media commenced with the establishment of Ray power FM, now there are many privately owned television and radio stations in Nigeria. On the other hand, ownership of Newspapers, magazine and other media agency are open to everybody including the government. Individuals and private corporations are free to establish, own and operate news media at will in Nigeria.
The Webster’s international dictionary defines control as the application of policies- and procedures for directing, regulatory and coordinating production admission
and other business activities in a way to achieve the objective of the enterprises in relation to the mass of communications control means lack of freedom from most proportional, legal and economic institutions as to what should the editorial contents of the media. The lack of freedom emanates from regulation, direction and coordination of production of editorial matters by forces antoides news processing enclave. Media control takes either managerial or editorial.
Is the professional prerogative of the editor? The phrase describes a situation where the editor as the gatekeeper controls the conduct of the medium on the other hand.
MANAGERIAL CONTROL is operative where the proprietor dictates policies overseas
administration and consequently controls the media either directly or indirectly through the appointment of family relation an loyafe for the running of the organization.
Government the world over control the press either through ownership or the laws of edition difermation, decrees and edicts. Some could even withdraw licenses or in developing nation, slash down newsprint allocation to newspaper that are opposed to government of the day.
Censorship is the act or practice of examing books, films, letters, media house and the likes with the intention of removing anything perceived to be offensive. The desire to control speech because of the probable consequences of speech is the hearth of censorship.
A press may be censor through an undue interference in the performance of the professional duties of the press by a person group of government to suppress unfavorable thoughts or opinions.
1.2 TYPES OF OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL TYPES OF OWNERSHIP
- GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP This describes a situation whereby
government constitute the major financial either totally or partially of media
organization. The important thing is that such government must have control of
major share of the media institution. The effect of this type of ownership is that the
government determines and influence the contents of the media, a phenomenon
that emanates out of government ownership, the suppressed and endared journalist
will find it difficult to fill the leader that the is easy if actually he is made.
- PRIVATE OWNERSHIP: This is a situation whereby an individual or a group of people or corporation who wither completely own or has a larger share in the financial up keep of the medium, for the purpose of information dissemination and is able to finance dissemination and is able to finance such medium adequately. These independent individuals and corporation run a single media enterprise and nothing else, however, the Nigeria society does not permit the private without the consent of the president of the federal republic of Nigeria. The federal Government started giving such consent in 1992 and today we have quite a sizeable number of private owned radio and television stations. Examples are Muritala International Television (MITV) Cool FM (RADIO) and a lot of others in Lagos and outside Lagos.
Private ownership consists of three other ownership patterns these are: Chain ownership, Cross ownership and conglomerate.
- CHAIN OWNERSHIP: This is a situation where an individual err corporate body owns possessed by an individual or group, Doris A. Garber says it is multiple owners brand of ownership, such that the individual control several radio station or several newspapers. The Zik press of 1930s was an example.
- GROSS MEDIA OWNERSHIP: Suggest the possession of a combination of
several media. The interference is that both^broadcast and print media ownership.
Example, of which Doris Harbor says, is the radio corporation of America. The major effect of conglomerates is that any issues that oppose the operation of the other branches of the conglomerates of business will not be examined” open ‘ mindedly”
- CORPORATE OWNERSHIP: The corporate ownership is the one that allow a
joint venture or partnership between the government federal or state and the
individual citizens of the nation. In this joints venture, emphasis focused on equal
participation from both parties informs of financial involvement in induction that
none of either parties should have pronounced power of dominance over the organization.
- PARTY OWNERSHIP: This describes the ownership power are exercised by the political party (ies) existing in the country concerned as a result of the parties’ financial control over and the funding of the media organization. Ownership can be discussed in two levels Viz.
- Party ownership in a society one party state
- Party-ownership in a democratic multiple state,
- PARTY OWNERSHIP IN A SOCIETY ONE PARTY STATE: Is
synonymous with government for ownership this is so because the only party
existing is the ruling party and his ruling party owns the media of communication
by virtue of its political ideology; the detent USSR comes to mind as an example
of a state where the media belong to the party and the government at the same
time. The influence here is that the Soviet Union operated a one party state.
- PARTY OWNERSHIP IN DEMPCRATIC MULTI PARTY STATE: In
democratic multi party state where the exists many political parties each of which
wants to rule the nations, the creation of a channel of communication that will function as a math organ at such party that ordered it could be forced.
TYPES OF CONTROL
- GOVERNMENT CONTROL: In Nigeria, the government controls not only the media but also who can own what media of communication. Media ownership is entrenched in the constitution and is maintain by a constitutional principles which allows government and private ownership of the print media and put the electronic media under the exclusive pressure of government both at state and federal levels except where an individual is granted to concern to establish it by the president of the nation.
- LEGAL CONTROL: Most of the time, we trail to realize that free some can never. be absolute Almost the media system are subject to certain basic statutory controls. Among them are liar designed to protect individual or group against defamation, a statue to preserve the common standard of decency and morality; and yet another basic statue to protect the state against treason or seditions utterances and publications.
- ADVERTISING CONTROL: For the mass media organization to survive therefore, they heed advertisements which provide money on which they thrive. In short, advertisers are indispensible to media organization.
- PROPRIETORIAL CONTROL: Proprietorial of news media in Nigeria is two
in nature. A new organization is either owned by the government or private individual.
1.3 FACTORS AFFECTED OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL
- GOVERNMENT POLICY: The government has a long indicated that it is dissatisfied with the existing media ownership restrictions. On 1st October, 1996 the government announced a review of the .cross media rules and released paper (s) on the subject.
- DIVERSITY OF VIEWS AND THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA PROPERTIES: There is no necessary connection between diversity of ownership and diversity of views. It is possible for different licenses to broadcast the same networked program material.
- LOCALISM IN REGIONAL BROADCASTING AGGREGATION AND LOCATION: The bill contains provision to ensure that the granting of exemptions from the cross-media rules does not result in reduction to local news service in regional areas.
- RECENT DEVELOPMENT: The issue of location in 2001 because of the following development. An expansion of regional radio services with two news
stations and the recruitment of fifty new programme melees to 32 regional stations.
1.4 CONTRIBUTION OF CONTROL OWNERSHIP TO THE SOCIETY:
- Creating a climate for change by including new values, attitudes and modes of behavior which favour and are capable of aiding modernization.
- Mass media and indeed communication can raise the levels of aspiration on the community dwellers which will save as incrative for action.
- Masslhediarcan deliberate and open people’s mind thereby making them prone to participating in decision making process in the society at large.
- Ownership and control can help people find new norms and harmony in a period of transition (Rao, 1966).
- Mass media and indeed communication can make the people realize their
importance, individually and collectively which may lead to increased in political
activities (Rao 1966).
- Ownership and control can help change the power structure in the community by bringing knowledge to the people en-mass. Thus, un-informed traditional leader who derives power from other factors in open to challenges.
- Ownership and control serve as the entertainment informative, education
surveillance of the environment correlation and co-ordination of factors,
persuasion transmission of social heritage opinion, molding.
1.5 MODELS OF OWNERSHIP
DECENTRALIZED PUBLIC OWNERSHIP MODEL
Where media are publicity owned and control is decentralized such that no central authority controls message flow. Example San be found in France and Denmark.
CENTRALIZED PUBLIC OWNERSHIP
Where ownership is public but control is centralized, e.g. Soviet communist experience.
DECENTRALIZED PRIVATE OWNERSHIP
Where ownership and control are private and decentralized as obtain in USA.
When ownership but control is government through regulatory bodies. This is Africa and Latin e.g. Nigeria where NBC control is broadcasting media.[email protected].[email protected].