DO YOU NEED HELP? CALL - 08060082010
  • Format: ms-word (doc)
  • Pages: 53
  • Chapter 1 to 5
  • File Size: 60kb
  • With abstract, reference, and questionnaire
  • Preview abstract and chapters 1 below

 3,000

wws Maya / Pre-sale Questions Need Help? Contact Us via WhatsApp

 Chapter one

Introduction

According to Ganley (1989) Domestic violence includes: physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse and abuse to property and pets. According to him, exposure to these forms of violence has considerable potential to be perceived as life threatening by those victimized and can leave them with a sense of vulnerability, helplessness and in extreme cases horror. Dutton (1992) defines Physical abuse as any behavior that involves the intentional use of force against the body of another person that risks physical injury, harm and or pain. It includes pushing, hitting, slapping, choking, using an object to hit, twisting of a body part, forcing the ingestion of an unwanted substance and use of a weapon.

Dutton (1994) defines sexual abuse as any unwanted sexual intimacy forced on an individual by another. It may include oral anal or vaginal stimulation or penetration, forced nudity, forced exposure to sexual explicit material or activity. Compliance may be obtained through actual or threatened physical force or through some other form of coercion. Psychological abuse may include derogatory statements or threat of being killed by another individual. It may also involve isolation, economic threats and emotional abuse.

Straus and Gelles (1990) domestic violence is widespread and occurs among all social economic groups. In a national survey of over 6000 American families it was estimated that between 53% and 70% of male batterers also frequently abuse their children. Domestic violence is one of the most under reported crimes in the United States, and the department of justice, in 1998 estimated that there are between 960000 and four million domestic incidences each year. In 1994 the bureau of justice statistics estimated that about 92% of domestic violence cases involved female victims. Wopadovi (women against domestic violence) 2014, domestic violence is threatening many Kenyan families and is unfortunately increasing in our society. Many people, the vast majority of them women have been injured, disabled and killed as a result of domestic violence. Following the recent happenings where domestic violence has become rampant and each day is reporting of deaths of spouses and lovers out of domestic violence, it has become a great priority that domestic violence is a menace that needs to be addressed as soon as possible and accorded with all seriousness that it deserves. Wopadovi further notes that domestic violence does not recognize social classes or education standards. Domestic violence according to Wikipedia (2004) is a problem as in many parts of Africa.

Academic performance is an important parameter in measuring success in student. The concept of academic performance is inevitable in any formal educational institution. It expresses the learning achievement of an individual or a group at the end of an academic programme. It is a criterion for ascertaining the capabilities of student from which his potentials could be assimilate, retain, recall and communicate his knowledge of what has been learnt (joe, Kpolovie, Osonwa and iderima 2014). This concept has close relationship in meaning with academic achievement and academic attainment. Academic performance is demonstrated achievement as knowledge attained or skills developed in school subject usually designed by test scores or marks assigned by the teacher or both. These definitions imply that academic performance is observed and measured aspect of a student’s mastery of skill(s) or subject content(s). It suggests that academic performance is one of the three required aspects of a properly composed learning objective as noted in Singh(2010) and it denotes an expression of a learner’s attainment in properly stated behavioural objectives. Meanwhile, poor academic performances of secondary school students’ have been affected by many factors which domestic violence is among.

The domestic violence is such a factor which is the foundation for children’s development, as such in terms of family problems, family’s socio-economic status plays a vital role in educational achievements of the students. The home has a great influence on the child’s psychological, emotional, social and economic state. This is because the domestic violence in context to the child’s performance affects his reaction to life situations and his level of performance. The success at school is associated with domestic violence factors, as these factors can greatly affect young children’s cognitive skills. Disadvantaged children (children with poor social background and facing more number of domestic violence factors) start schooling with significantly lower cognitive skills than their more advantaged peers (Sharma, Basad and Gupta 2015). Dutton (2012) defines physical abuse as any behaviour that involves the intentional use of force against the body of another person that risks physical injury, harm and or pain. It includes pushing, hitting, slapping, choking, using an object to hit, twisting of a body, forcing the ingestion of an unwanted substance and use of a weapon. He further sees sexual abuse as form of domestic violence defines it as any unwanted sexual intimacy forced on an individual by another. It may include oral anal or vaginal stimulation or penetration, forced nudity, forced exposure to sexual explicit material or activity. Compliance may be obtained through actual or threatened physical force or through some other form of coercion.

Domestic violence is threatening many Nigerian families and is unfortunately increasing in our society. Many people, the vast majority of them children have been injured, disabled and killed as a result of domestic violence. Following the recent happenings where domestic violence, it has become a great priority that domestic violence is a menace that needs to be addressed as soon as possible and accorded with all seriousness that it deserves. It was further notes that domestic violence does not recognize social classes or educational standards (Wopadovi,2014). Domestic violence is assuming national and international attention and it is a type of violence that is prevalent in many homes, and the world over. It is a form of defilement, assault, sexual harassment, and rape or battering, child abuse, for example denial of right, necessities and opportunities, threatening patterns of communication such as insults, harassment, neglectful lack of action. Domestic violence has been outlined by Amnesty international as most violent attacks on an individual or group of people or women. It involves physical, sexual and psychological violence in the family including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to any member of the household. Domestic violence may be exhibited by any member of the household (Sharma, Basad and Gupta 2015).

Domestic Violence

In the past two decades there has been growing recognition of the prevalence of domestic violence in the society. Moreover, it has become apparent that some individuals are at a greater risk for victimization than others. Domestic violence has adverse effect on individuals, families and society in general. Ganley (1989) states that Domestic violence includes: physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse and abuse to property and pets. According to him, exposure to these forms of violence has considerable potential to be perceived as life threatening by those victimized and can leave them with a sense of vulnerability, helplessness and in extreme cases horror. Dutton (1992) defines Physical abuse as any behavior that involves the intentional use of force against the body of another person that risks physical injury, harm and or pain. It includes pushing, hitting, slapping, choking, using an object to hit, twisting of a body part, forcing the ingestion of an unwanted substance and use of a weapon. Dutton (1994) defines sexual abuse as any unwanted sexual intimacy forced on ne individual by another. It may include oral anal or vaginal stimulation or penetration, forced nudity, forced exposure to sexual explicit material or activity. Compliance may be obtained through actual or threatened physical force or through some other form of coercion. Psychological abuse may include derogatory statements or threat of being killed by another individual. It may also involve isolation, economic threats and emotional abuse. Straus and Gelles (1990) domestic violence is widespread and occurs among all social economic groups. in a national survey of over 6000 American families it was estimated that between 53% and 70% of male batterers also frequently abuse their children. Other research by CWP, (1995) suggests that women who have been hit by their husbands are twice as likely as other women to abuse a child. Over three million children at a risk of exposure to parental violence each year observes Carlson (1984). Mackay (1994) notes that children from homes where domestic violence occurs are physically or sexually abused and/or seriously neglected at a rate 15 times the national average Regier and Cowdry (1995) estimated that 1 in 5 female children and 1 in 10 male children may experience sexual molestation. According to statistics from (2012) governors’ commission, roughly 50% of homicides and 92% of murders- suicides in New Hampshire are domestic violence related. Domestic violence is a pattern that usually builds in intensity without intervention according to Representative Shannon Chandley, an Amherst democrat. Children regardless of race or social class are victimized at a higher rate than adults according to the U.S. department of justice. Some children in that country also witness violence on a daily basis which can have long term psychological consequences. Gabby Gifford (2014) is urging congregational actions on domestic violence and calls for legislation including steps like denying people facing restraining orders on domestic violence the right to possess guns.

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT»

Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: edustoreng@gmail.com.

IF YOU CAN'T FIND YOUR TOPIC, CLICK HERE TO HIRE A WRITER»

Disclaimer: This PDF Material Content is Developed by the copyright owner to Serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for Students to Conduct Academic Research.

You are allowed to use the original PDF Research Material Guide you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the project topic.

2. As a source for ideas for you own academic research work (if properly referenced).

3. For PROPER paraphrasing ( see your school definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase).

4. Direct citing ( if referenced properly).

Thank you so much for your respect for the authors copyright.

Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: edustoreng@gmail.com.