Influence of Parental Care on Preschools Learning Outcome in Nsukka Local Government
This study was on Influence of parental care on pre schools learning outcome in Nsukka local government. Four objectives were raised which included; To examine the impact of parents in early childhood preschool pupils’ learning outcomes, to investigate if the socio-demographic characteristics of the parents have an impact on preschool pupils’ learning outcomes, to examine the factors affecting parental involvement in early childhood education and to recommend measures to increase the rate and involvement of parents in preschool pupils’ learning outcomes. A total of 77 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were drawn from selected in primary schools in Nsukka, Enugu state. Hypothesis was tested using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS).
Chapter one – Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to critically examine the parental care and pupils learning outcomes in education. The specific objectives include the following:
- To examine the impact of parents in early childhood preschool pupils’ learning outcomes.
- To investigate if the socio-demographic characteristics of the parents have an impact on preschool pupils’ learning outcomes.
- To examine the factors affecting parental involvement in early childhood education.
- To recommend measures to increase the rate and involvement of parents in preschool pupils’ learning outcomes.
Chapter Two – Literature Review (Theoretical Framework)
- Family Systems Theory
Family Systems Theory proposes that families are interconnected units in which each member exerts a reciprocal influence on the other members (Boss et al., 1993). Thus, each member of a family is affected by the family system in which they participate (Berger, 2000). Changes occurring in any part of the family system, such as a parent losing a job or a child switching classrooms, affect and initiate changes within other members of the family. Thus, early care and education programs can expect to see changes in children based on what happens within the family system. Likewise, families can anticipate changes in their child based on what takes place within the program. Therefore, it is essential that parents are involved with what is happening with the child while in the program, as well as for the program to stay informed of what is happening with the family. There are many factors that influence a family’s ability to both facilitate a child’s growth and development and participate in parent education programs. Issues of diversity, communication, meeting preferences, resources, time, knowledge, and personnel affect family involvement. Issues of diversity can be found throughout the majority of research regarding parent involvement. In recent research, diversity is most commonly discussed in terms of race, socioeconomic status (SES), parents’ educational level, and family structure (Desimone, 1999; Bruckman & Blanton, 2003). While there are disagreements within the current literature about the degree of influence these factors have on parent involvement, there is consensus that they are influential. Race and ethnicity have also been a focus of many studies of family involvement, specifically Caucasian, African, Hispanic, Latino, and Asian American families. Most often, findings suggest that parent involvement programs fail to serve minority groups, groups that are not Caucasian and/or middle class and that programs that are designed around the needs of Caucasian, middle class parents do not efficiently serve other groups. This leads to feelings of discomfort and disconnection among parents of minorities, which minimizes their chances of participation. Crozier (2001) has contended that parent involvement strategies will ultimately fail until the needs of ethnic minorities are recognized and addressed. Although it is necessary to recognize the needs of particular groups, it is also important to avoid restricting people to specific categories. Placing stereotypes on individuals may potentially suppress the uniqueness of individuals in minority groups (Jordan, Reyes-Blanes, Peek, Peel, & Lane, 1998).
In addition to ethnicity, education and SES are commonly examined as it relates to family involvement. U.S. Census Bureau (2000a) indicates that 28.6% of adults over the age of 25 have a high school diploma or higher while 15.5% have a bachelor degree or higher. Increasing parents’ educational levels and knowledge has been shown to lead to an increase in their children’s knowledge, thereby decreasing the disadvantageous lives that some families lead (Bauer and Barnett, 2001). According to Bauer and Barnett (2001), the United States has one of the highest percentages of children in poverty among developed countries, with many of these children being raised by single mothers. According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2000b), over 2.5 million families with related children under age 5 live below the poverty line. The resources available to families have a large impact on every aspect of life, including participation in parent education programs. Parents from lower SES backgrounds experience many obstacles, which affect their ability to participate. Time constraints due to work schedules, need for child care, transportation and financial difficulties (Eccles & Harold, 1993; Finders and Lewis, 1994; Lamb-Parker et al., 2001; McBride, Bae and Wright, 2002; Sheldon, 2002) are all hindrances to their ability to be involved. Parents who come from higher SES backgrounds generally have more flexibility in their schedules and do not have the additional daily stressors that lower SES parents’ experience. Parents with few resources who struggle with such stressors may not have the time to practice effective parenting (Eccles & Harold, 1993) Not only can life at home be disadvantageous for some parents, but they can also receive poor treatment by teachers and professionals. Bruckman and Blanton (2003) found that teachers who were not supporters of parent involvement typically had negative views about parents with lower income levels and those with less education. Glanville & Tiller (1991) propose that some parents, due to their low SES background, lack certain skills that would allow them to participate and help in their child’s development. Coleman and Churchill (1997) further found that parent with low SES and education levels are just as interested in being involved in parent education programs as those with higher incomes and greater levels of education, but may not demonstrate their involvement in the same ways. For example, low income parents prefer helping their children at home over volunteering at school (Desimone, 1999). Knowing that diversity exists among the parents participating in early care and education settings, it can be assumed that various groups of people also have diverse needs in regards to working with professionals in education programs.
Chapter Three – The Methodology (Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure)
According to Nwana (2005), sampling techniques are procedures adopted to systematically select the chosen sample in a specified away under controls. This research work adopted the convenience sampling technique in selecting the respondents from the total population.
In this study, the researcher adopted the convenient sampling method to determine the sample size. Out of all the entire population of selected primary schools in Nsukka, the researcher conveniently selected 80 participant out of the overall population as the sample size for this study. According to Torty (2021), a sample of convenience is the terminology used to describe a sample in which elements have been selected from the target population on the basis of their accessibility or convenience to the researcher.
Chapter Four – Data Analysis ( Test of Hypothesis)
Ho: There is no significant relationship between parental care and preschool pupils’ learning outcomes.
H1: There is significant relationship between parental care and preschool pupils’ learning outcomes.
Ho: there are no factors affecting parental involvement in early childhood education.
H2: there are factors affecting parental involvement in early childhood education.
Chapter Five – Summary, Conclusion
Basing on the above findings, it can be concluded that: First, the level of parental involvement is higher in private primary schools than urban public primary schools. However, in rural school there was poor parental involvement, poor parental commitment and poor teacher-parent relationship which impacted greatly of children school performance. The level of commitment of parents in rural school was affected by poverty, literacy level, distance from schools and attitudes.
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