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ABSTRACT

Insurgency is a concept that is fluid and largely subject to argument which are capable of generating emotional exchanges due to differing perspectives and divergent emotional exchange due to differing perspectives and divergent understandings and positions. It has been a global phenomenon, particularly in the Nigerian state with the emergence of groups such as the Niger-Delta ethnic militant in the South-South, Odun People’s Congress (OPC) in the South West, Bakassi Boys and movement for the sovereign State ofBiafra (MASSOB) in the south East that6 its approach is to unleach force to maintain order. The reaserch also brings up the case of the group Jama ‘atul Ahlus Sunnah Lidda’awati wal Jihad, popularly referred to as Boko-Haram which means Westernization is a sin giving great publicity to terrorist actions such as killings, kidnapping, bombing, disruption of public peace and so on. The research hence looks at how the activities of the media has aided the actions of insurgents and how it may be used as a tool to stem the insurgency tide in the country.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 MEANING AND DEFINITION OF TERRORISM

Terrorism has been defined in many different terms, but it is generally believed that it is an international attempt to inflict fear, trepidation and hopelessness on citizens

of other nations while those who engage in the act of terrorism are usually disgruntic

i people.

According to Lai Oso (2002:1), “the way and manner in which development is conceived has over the years had an over-bearing impact on how we in turn conceive communication, how to use it and direction to other social institutions and processes, especially the process of social change” therefore, an attitude to terrorism takes us back to media studies on media effect.

Terrorism, according to oxford advanced leaner’s dictionary, is the use of violent action in order to achieve political aims or force a government to act. Terrorism is a gradational issue. It may start in form of protest. The protest can be initially peaceful or violent against injustices or perceived injustices against a group or section of the society. This violence could degenerate to destruction of not only property but human lives, and finally snowball into total terrorism. Therefore, terrorism is an advanced violent action employ by a person or a group of persons to fo To Hoffman (2003:118) terrorism, as the case may be, maybe seen as a violent act that is conceived specifically to attract attention and then, through the publicity it generates to communicate a message.

Terrorism is a controversial concept like any other social sciences concept. 1.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TERRORISM

Terrorism is a concept that fluid and largely subject to arguments which are capable of generating emotional exchanges due to differing perspective and divergent understanding and position. It has been a global phenomenon, particularly is the Nigerian state with the emergence of group such as the Niger Delta ethics militant in the South-South, Odua people’s congress (OPC) in the South-West, Bakass Boys and movement for the sovereign state of Biafra (MASSOB) in the South-East that it is approach is to unleash force to maintain order.

The concept of terrorism has undergone Kaieido scopic trends over the years as one of leaders of the united 12 army once realistically explained violent actions. Are

shocking. We want to shock people, everywhere. It is our way of communication with the

t

people.

The Anarchist wave” is the first form of terrorism experienced in history intentionally; three similar, consecutive and overlapping expressions is followed. The “Anti-colonial wave” started in the 1920s and lasted for forty years. Then came “new left wave” which diminished immediately as the twenth century came to an end, leaving only rce a government to act on their request.

 

a few groups still active in Nepal Spain, the United Kingdom Peru and Colombia. In 1979 the “Religious Wave” emerged and it is assumed to disappear by 2025 for a new wave to emerge.

The Irish republication Army (IRA) is the oldest terrorist organization emerging. But in 1950s, it fought nautically for five campaigns revolution, revolution is the overriding aim in every wave.

In the case of Religious terrorism Christian terrorism based on racist interpretation of the Bible emerged in an Amorphous American “Christian identity” movement. In 1979 the Iranian revolution made an unprovided invasion of Afghanistan. ^^ T

The Iranian revolution was so unexpected that made Muslims to storm the grand mosque in Mecca in the first minutes of the new century of 1979, and resulted in 10,000 causalities. Whatever the specific local causes, it is striking that so many examples of such terrorism appeared at the same time in Egypt, Syria, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria and Indonesia.

Al-Queda is probably still the largest terrorist group with perhaps 5,000 members with cells operating in seventy-two countries Al-Queda is responsible for several attacks in it Arabian peninsula, Africa and American homeland. It is initial objective was to force the U.S evacuation of military bases in Saudi Arabia the land containing Islam two holiest sites as this led to the September 11, 2001 bombing of the world trade centre in the United State of American.

The Nigerian state fights terrorism through its responses to groups such as the Niger

Delta ethnic militants in the South-South, Odua people’s congress in the south- West, \

Bakass boys and movement for the sovereign state of Biafra (MASSOB) in the South

East that it is approach is to unleash force to maintain order. 1.3 THE MEDIA ROLE IN CURBING TERRORISM

Although the media promote culture development and excellence in the society, yet they pay little or no attention to the aftermaths of their news or programmes through which they disseminate such to the society. There is the need for media professional to make the issue of research on the effect of their messages. This will make them to consolidate on those aspects that would have positive effects on the society.

In an article by Ukanah Oluwole (Nigerian Tribute Feb. 27, 1996, IV). It was stated that television video and other audio-visual machine excert a great deal of control and influence on people. They shape to a great extent people’s dispositions, speech behaviours, characters, and way of life and so on. Onabanjo et al (2009) stated that the people’s social, cultural, physical, psychological spiritual lives & even education can be made by these highly influential channels of communication. This is because what we see or hear filters so much into our subconscious that we begin to act or lives out those things one way or the other.

A group with the highest tendency on being influenced by what they see, or find in their environment is the group made up of children and the youths in the society. Ojomoc

(2000:19) says that children’s and youths in the society are the most vulnerable to the rampaging effects of video and film some kinds of communication brought to the attention of some kinds of people under some kinds of conditions have some kinds of effects Bernard Berelson, 1948.

According to Lawal Akinfeleye (ed) (2010), the film like theatre and other media in the contemporary society communicates various messages torts audience. Apart from its entertainment roles, the film transmits subtle messages about society,

Its lifestyle, the future and the past one of the advantages it has over the theatre is that it transmits its messages in quick successions within a limited time.

Nowadays, the messages of video films are those which help the individual to cognized the world i.e. gain better understanding of his environment and make necessary adjustments to it. These messages are those which he uses in everyday and which do not only reflect but also influences the society. Therefore, film has specific roles which play in a particular society it is made for. In Nigeria the specific goals which video film seeks to achieve are:

  1. To serve as a conduct through which a continuous flow of message and information are disseminated to add value to the social, political and cultural interaction between peoples in a heterogeneous society like Nigeria.
  2. To serve as the image of the society at large thereby forming the yard stick through

which the outside world mirror the society.

iii.  To serve as a means of entertainment and recreation during the leisure period i.e.

when social activities commence after a hard day job, film, can serve as a relaxing

mode of entertainment for any individual. iv.   Lastly to be used as the voice that speaks to the outside world, this can be achieved

by taking the indigenous films to the international audience to see what African

.

culture is made of.

V

The social effects of mass communication remains the most controversial and most indeterminate communication may achieve* the purpose which it is intended in which case it is said to be functional it may produce an effect opposite to the one intended in which case it is dysfunctional and it may produce no effect at all. But the circumstances under which it will produce one effect rather than another and the type of person in which one effect rather than another will be manifested cannot be precisely determined, (Dare:1992).

1.4 OPPRESSION

The New York metropolitan Area has about 21,000,000 people or about 8% of the U.S population almost everyone in America knows someone who has been killed, injured or traumatized by the events of Tuesday, Many people are calling for “revenge” or “vengeance” and comments such as “kill them all” have been circulated on the TV, radio and E-mail. A few more potential begin comments have called for “JUSTICE”

 

The term “National Interest” is commonly used as if it is something good for us and the people of the county are supposed to understand that so if a political leader say that ” I am doing this in the national interest you are supposed that to feel good because that is for you. However, if you look closely, it turns out that the national interest is not” defined as what it is in the interest of the entire population it is what is in the command the resources that enables them to control command the resources that enables them to elites the state basically, co-operate based elites that is what is called the “national interest

Oppression terrorism and the far right wing if you look back through the history of the past centuries, you can track oppression back to religion political or monarchial empire, which have led to modern day attitudes and far right wing fascist movements.

The oppression of the Arabic nations came before oppression of African nations.

The Arabic nations were oppresses by monarchical emprises and Christianity many hundreds of years ago, with the Arabic people slaves for mostly Christian led-

empire.

The African nations were later to be forced into servitude by the British Empire and Christian missionaries.

Equality and human right were rarely a part of the mission of western government and empires. Arabic, Asian and African nations were subjected to the most inhumane

dictatorial leadership of western nations, and on.ly in the last 100 years have those oppressed nations started to fight against the oppressive western rule.

Part of the Christian missions across the world was to bring schooling and education to the third world countries under the catholic banner and although the African, Arabic and Asian countries were given education and schooling, they were also subjected to the harsh punitive oppression that came with the catholic missionaries. The catholic and Christian educational facilities occupied most of the African nations which were under also British and French rule. South American countries saw the Arrival of Christian missionaries.

1.5 VARIOUS FORMS OF TERRORISM

It is common today for people to hear the word terrorism and immediately think of Al-Qaeda or other Islamic Extremists. While Islamic extremism does contribute to certain types of terrorism, these types commonly overlap to describe single terrorist organizations but are useful in providing a way of differentiating what these groups will target and what motivates them.

  1. State terrorism
  2. Religious terrorism
  3. Right wing terrorism
  4. Left wing terrorism
  5. Pathological terrorism
  6. Separatist terrorism
  7. Narco-terrorism
  8. Issue-oriented terrorism

i.) STATE TERRORISM-: state terrorism is the systematic use of terror by a government in order to control its population. Not to be confused with state sponsored terrorism, where states sponsor terrorist groups holding power in a country and a non-governmental organization. It is the original form of terrorism.

ii.) RELIGIOUS TERRORISM: – Terrorism can be motivated by religious ideologies and grievances religious terrorism is particularly dangerous due to the fanatricrism of those who practice it and their willingness to sacrifice themselves for the cause. Religious terrorists are more likely to use “all in tactics such as suicide bombings

iii.) RIGHT WING TERRORISM: – This type of terrorism aims to combat liberal governments and preserve traditional social orders. Right wing terrorism is commonly characterized by militias and gangs; many times these groups are racially motivated and aim to marginalize minorities with in a state. Examples of modern right wing include the Klu Klux and Neo-Fascists.

iv.) LEFT WING TERRORISM: – These groups seek to over throw capitalist democracies and establish socialists or communist governments in their place. They want to attack the established system in order to do away with class distinction while these groups still exists they are not as prominent as they were

during cold war. Examples the revolutionary people’s liberation partly-front in Turkey and the revolutionary Armed forces.

v.) PATHOLOGICAL TERRORISM: – This describes the use of terrorists by individuals who strategies for the sheer joy of terrorizing others. Pathological terrorists often operate rather in group like the others alone are not true ‘terrorists’

as they lack any well-defined political* motive. Example^ of pathological terrorisms are most commonly seen in school shooting and serial killing scenarios. The shooting at columbine high school and of congress woman Gabby Giffords

vi.) ISSUE ORIENTED TERRORISM: – This type of terrorism is carried out for the purposes of advancing a specific issue. Commonly these issues are social in nature or deal with the environment. Example the bombings of abortion clinic and the assault of whaling ship are the best examples of issue-oriented terrorism.

vii.) SEPARATIST TERRORISM: – This seeks to cause fragmentation with a country and establishment of a new state. This type of terrorism is typical of miniorities with in a nation-state that desire their own commonly due to discrimination from the majority groups examples are Spain, Chechen terrorist in Chechnya.

viii.) NARCO-TERRORISM: – This term originally refers to organizations that gain funds through the sale of drugs. Example the cartels in Mexico have carried out beheadings mass burials and other severe acts of violence. Many times this violence is carried out to intimidate population into not cooperating with authorities. Pablo Escobar also enacted the assassination of Colombian politicians during the height of his power in order to intimate the government into the interfering with his during trafficking activity

1.6 EMERGENCY OF TERRORISM IN NIGERIA AND ITS IMPACTS ON THE CITIZEN

Nigeria’s heterogeneity has at same point,been regain deed as its strength but currently is perceived to me the crack which may cause a predicted break-down. The religious come cultural diversity has always threatened the continued existence of the Nigerian nation as an entity such that in the past various opinion leaders’ have proffered secessions as the permanent solution to internal crisis and terrorism in the country which started rearing its ugly head since the Early 2000s.

Every terrorist group that had brutal impacts on the country have been established based on tribal or religious dissatisfaction; the movement for the emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) is one of such which fermented trouble aimed at security recognition for the south-south from the federal government; movement for the Actualization of the sovereign state of Biafra (MASSOB) has also staged series of attacks a sovereign Biafran state.

The Islamic Boko Haram sect in the north-west has also been a clog in the wheel of nation’s progress ever since their establishment in the 2001; they launched attack in 2009 with death tolls rising fast.

It is pertinent to note that the division Nigeria suffers led it to a civil war that lasted thirty mouths claiming lives and property. Memories of this war and the losses still linger in the hearts of those who experienced it and has been passed on to the younger generation causing continued strive among the tribe involve which still is largely

responsible for some unrests which the country is currently witnessing.

.

Again, since the beginning of the fourth democratic dispensation, federal power has caused a major tussle among the various ethnic groups including minority groups. It has become the trend for at least one ethnic group per time to stage resistant actions against government. During president Olusegun obasanjo’s leadership between 1999 and 2008 the south-south came up with several bodies of militants carrying out all sorts of crimes. This continued during Umaru Musa Yar’adura, the Boko harm took the stage and unleashed a new lease of terror in the north.

Although the Islamic insurgents have based their attacks on a couple of extremist demands such as asking for absolute abolishing of every form of western civilization as their name Boko Haram implies, several people believe the attacks are politically motivated.

Their attacks have rendered several part of Northern Nigerian insecure churches, mosques, schools, Barracks and several individuals have been attacked. Residents have been forced to relocate due to the constant attack by the insurgent in recent times. This has led to the federal Governments declaration of a state of Emergency on some states in

the affected region.

The insecure state of this part of Nigeria has scared off investors thereby hindering the country’s economy growth even though oil exploration countries to give it a boost several business and workers have relocated from their places leaving several work places deserted and reducing the means of livelihood of people caught up in the affected areas and increasing poverty in the nation.

Death toll has constantly been on the rise in the country; especially the North-Western region number of deaths per attack now ranges from twenty to one hundred and fifty. This portrays the government as one which is notable to adequately protect the lives of the citizen continued killings have hindered several essential services in the region such as health care, education amongst others.

Food shortage is another Effect of terrorism in Nigeria. The northern part of the country produces a major part of Nigeria’s food. The supply of food from there however has been reduced thereby making available food more expensive which in turn causes hike in food prices.

Although Nigeria, the giant of Africa, describes her heterogeneity as a situation of “unity in diversity” it has become one of violence and terror. The various lines of division in the country has given rise to the current situation of terrorism and violence. This situation has caused loss of lives and property, high level of insecurity, food shortage, price hikes, poverty and stunted economic growth.

1.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MEDIA AND TERRORISM

Political science professor Abraham Miller talks about the symbiotic relationship between terrorism and media from which neither of the two can step out. He noted terrorism is capable of writing any drama no matter how horrible to compel the media’s attention. Terrorism like an ill-mannered enfant terrible is the media’s stepchild, unfortunately, can neither completely be neither ignore nor deny” (Tuman 2003:115). The revolution in mass communication on a vaster scale than ever before and the development of technological inventions significantly changed the way news are communicated, making them accessible to a great number of people. Terrorist take advantage of that successfully and recklessly. So, Hoffman (2003:122) also uses the term symbiosis between media in mass communication which had a direct influence on terrorism and he mentions three great revolutions in mass communication which had a direct influence on terrorism.

First such evolution happened in the 19th century and was caused by the invention of printing machine which enable printing papers in great number. Hoffman sees the symbolic relationship between terrorism and the media during this era by the example of Narodnaya Volye and their anarchist contemporaries who used the papers to communicate their messages to a wide audience. The second great revolution in mass communication occurred in 1968. That year marked not only the birth of international terrorism but also the launching of the first television satellite by the United State which accelerated news broadcasting, and terrorist immediately started to use it to achieve their

goals. A third revolution in the communication of news appeared in the end of the 20 century and compared to the previous two has been less dependent upon new major technological breakthrough, but used the existing ones to change the style of news presentation. Hoffman, names this the syndrome which has revolutionized news broadcasting through the emergence of dedicated round-the-clock “all the news the time” which was the reason why American media were proclaimed “the best intelligence agency” besides classic terrorist, trends the influence of contemporary media has initiated the so called propaganda war and terrorist organization attach great importance to it propaganda war, can be a very powerful psychological weapon and can greatly increase the effect of certain actions. Terrorist, on the one hand, need media propaganda in order to demonstrate absolute justness of their goals” but at the same time they are aware of \- how much damage negative publicity might cause to their goals.

THE OBJECTIVES IN USING MASS MEDIA ARE:

  1. To convey the propaganda of the deed and to create extreme fear among their
    target group.
  2. To mobilize wider support for their cause among the general population no
    opinion by emphasizing such themes as righteousness of their cause and the
    inevitability of their victory;

To frustrate and disrupt the response of the government and security forces;

Free media are a symbol and basic value of a democratic society and ever-present rivalry in who will be the first one to deliver a significant news, media sometimes consciously react on terrorist propaganda. Wilkinson (2002:190) however, notices that it would be wrong to conclude that terrorist control mass media, they barely try to

manipulate and exploit them for their own purpose Hoffman. For that reason, names

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terrorism “a perverted form of show business”, and ways in which some media companies inform about terrorists action opinions” media professionals and the public thus have to constantly be on the watch before terrorist manipulation attempts.

In an open society with free media it is possible to have corrupted and interrupted counter terrorist operations due to irresponsible media bahaviour. Television crews appearing too close to the hostage area, which might complicate rescue team action, or releasing too many information about the terrorist in the media, which later and endanger and obstruct court trials against them.

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