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Nigeria Current Affairs 1960 till Date PDF Download

 

Geography and Population

Nigeria lies between the geographic coordinates, 10.00N 8.00E. The nation, officially known as the Federal republic of Nigeria, borders the Gulf of Guniea on the South, Cameroon on the East, Niger on the North and Benin on the West. With a total of 923,768 square kilometers of space, Nigeria is the most populous country of the African Continent, with an estimated population of 140,000,000.

 

The Nigerian National Anthem

Arise, O Compatriots,

Nigeria’s call obey

To serve our Fatherland

With love and strength and faith

The labor of our heroes past

Shall never be in vain

To serve with heart and might

One nation bound in freedom,

peace and unity.

 

O God of creation,

direct our noble cause;

Guide our Leaders right;

Help our Youth the truth to know

In love and honesty to grow

And living just and true

Great lofty heights attain

To build a nation where peace

and justice reign.

 

The Nigerian Pledge

I pledge to Nigeria my country

To be faithful, loyal and honest

To serve Nigeria with all my strength

To defend her unity

And uphold her ho. nor and glory

So help me God.

 

The Nigerian Coat of Arm

Description of the Nigerian Coat Of Arm

The Coat of Arms of Nigeria has a black shield with two white stripes that come together like the letter Y. These represent the two main rivers flowing through Nigeria; the Benue River and the Niger River. The black shield represents Nigeria’s good earth while n and horses on each side represent dignity.  The eagle represents strength, while the green and white bands on the top of the shield represent the rich agricultural land of the country. The yellow flowers at the base are Costus spectabilis, it stands for the beauty of Nigeria. The slogan Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress written at the base of the Coat of Arm is Nigeria’s Motto.  The Coat of Arms depicts authority and power.

 

History of Coup D’Etat in Nigeria

First Military Coup-January 15, 1966, Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu led the first ever- military coup in Nigeria that led to the death of Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Sardauna of Sokoto and Premier of Northern Nigeria, Chief S.I. Akintola, the Premier of Western Region, Sir Abutbakar Tafawa Balewa, Prime Minister of Nigeria, Chief Festus Okotie-Eboh, Federal Minister of Finance and other military officers.

 

The Second Coup-On 29 July, 1966-, Six months after the first coup plot, three young military officers of Northern background led by Lieutenant Colonel Murtala Muhammed staged a counter coup to even the score.  This led to the death of Major-General J.T.U.  Aguyi-Ironsi, Head of State, Col. Francis Adekunle Fajuyi Military Govemor, Western region and other military officers.  General Yakubu Gowon was then sworn-in as the Military Head of State.

 

The Third Coup-In July 1975- A group of Colonel sacked the Government of General Yakubu Gowon in a bloodless coup.  General Murtala Muhammed also masterminded this coup.  No live were lost.  General Murtala Muhammed assumed power in July 1975. 1859 1880- 1903 Lugan Nigeri Sep. 2 in Nige 1946-

 

The Fourth Coup-13 February 1976 Six months later, Lieutenant-colonel Bukur Suka Dimka with his loyalist stage an abortive coup which claimed the lives of three officers: General Murtala Muhammed, Head of State, Col. Ibrahim Taiwo, Governor of Kwara State and Lt. Akintunde Akinsehinwa, ADC to Muhammed.

 

The Fifth Coup-31 December 1983, General Buhari Muhammadu stage a coup which sacked the Shehu Shagari’s administration.  This coup led to the death of a loyal officer to the government, Brigadier Ibrahim Bako.

 

The Sixth Coup- 27 August 1985, General Ibrahim Babangida led a palace coup which terminated the Buhari’s 20 months reign.

 

The Seventh Coup-in 1986, Major-General Mamman Vatsa led an abortive coup to overthrowni the government of President Babangida.  That same year, he and other 10 military officers were tried and were executed in March 1986.

 

The Eight Coup-22 April 1990, Gideon Orka staged an abortive coup to unseat the government. Of Ibrahim Babangida.

 

Ninth Coup-On November 17, 1993, General Sani Abacha staged a palace coup to unseat the Interim National Government led by Chief Ernest Shonekan.

 

Alleged Coup-In 1995, there was an alleged coup plot which involve General Obasanjo (retired), former head of state;  Major General Shehu Musa Yar’Adua (retired)

 

Alleged Coup-In December 21, 1996-Alleged Coup by Lt. General Oladipo Diya

 

Notable Dates in Nigeria’s History

Pre-colonial Era

9th century-Bronzes found at the town of Igbo-Ukwu are created.

10th century-Nri kingdom begins.

11th Century-Borno was established as an Islamic state.

15th Century-Hausa kingdoms in the north was established as nominally Muslim states.

1472-Portuguese navigators reach Nigerian coast.

Early 19th Century-The Sokoto Caliphate was established through a jihad.

Early 19th Century-Sokoto Caliphate went to war with the Yoruba states.

Mid to late 19th Century-Christian missionary activity began in Southem Nigeria.

 

Colonial Era

1850s –British establish presence around Lagos.

1859- Iwe Iroyin, Nigeria’s first newspaper was established.

1880-1905- Southern Nigeria was conquered by the British.

1903-British conquered most of Northern Nigeria including the Sokoto Caliphate.

1912-Lord Lugard, governor of Northern Nigeria established a system of indirect rule.

1914-Northern Nigeria and Southern Nigeria were amalgamated to form Nigeria.

Sep. 20, 1923-The Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) became the first political party in Nigeria.  The first political election was conducted afterwards.

1946-1960-Nigeria entered a period of decolonization as Nigerian nationalism grows.

1950-The conference of northern and southern delegates held in Ibadan.

1953-The London conference, regarding Nigeria’s federal formula, took place.

10th, June 1956-Oil was first discovered in Nigeria at Oloibiri (in Bayelsa State).

1957 – Nigeria held its constitutional conference.

1958-The Nigeria flag was designed by Michael Taiwo Akinkunmi.

1959 – Nigeria held its first national election to setup an independent government.  Northern Nigeria wins most of the seats of parliament.

July 1,1959-The Central bank of Nigeria started operation.

 

Post Colonial Era (1960-Present)

October 1, 1960 – Nigeria gained her independence from Britain; Tafawa Balewa became Prime Minister, and Nnamdi Azikiwe became President.

October 1, 1963- Nigeria severed its remaining ties to Britain, and the Nigerian First Republic was born.

December 1,1964-The first civilian to civilian national election

January 15, 1966- Nigeria’s first military coup deposed the Nigerian First Republic;  Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa, was assassinated along with the premier of Northern Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello, and the Finance Minister, Festus Okotie-Eboh.

January 16, 1966-The Federal Military Government is formed, with General Johnson Aquivi- Ironsi as the Head of State and Supreme Commander of the Federal Republic.

July 29, 1966-A counter-coup by military officers of northern extraction, deposed the Federal Military Government;  General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi was assassinated along with Adekunie Fajuyi, Military Governor of Western Region.  General Yakubu Gowon became the Head of State.

1967-Ethnoreligious violence between Igbo Christians, and Hausa / Fulani Musilims in Easten and Northern Nigeria, triggered amigration of the Igbos back to the East

27th May 1967– General Yakubu Gowon created 12 states.  See page 50 for the states created.

May 30, 1967 -General Emeka Ojukwu, Military Governor of Eastern Nigeria, declared his province an independent republic called Biafra, and the Nigerian Civil War ensued.

January 8, 1970 – General Emeka Ojukwu fied into exile;  His deputy de él Philip Effiong became acting President of Biafra,

January 15, 1970-Acting President of Biafra, Philip Effiong surrendered to Nigerian forces through future President of Nigeria, Olusegun Obasanjo, and Biafra was reintegrated into Nigeria.

15 January, 1970-Kanji Dam was commissioned at the cost of $ 180m.

April 1st 1971-Nigeria National Petroleum Co-operation was established.

January 1, 1973-Kobo and Naira was introduced as alegal tender.

July 29, 1975 -General Yakubu Gowon was overthrown in a bloodless coup;  General Murtala Mohammed became Head of State.
April 4th, 1976 – Abuja was proclaimed to be the Federal Capital Territory under Decree No.6 of 1976.

February 3,1976 -General Murtala Mohammed created 7 additional states, making the number of states in Nigeria to be 19. See page50 for the states created.

February 13, 1976-General Murtala Mohammed was assassinated on his way to work;  His deputy de el, Lieutenant-General Olusegun Obasanjo became Head of State, and set a date to terminate military rule.  22May, 1973-The NYSC was established 12May,

1976-Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) was launched.

15January 1977-FESTAC 77 was held in Nigeria.

1979-Shehu Shagari won the election as the first Executive President of Nigeria in the American-styled Second Republic.

October 1, 1979-Shehu Shagari was sworn in as President.

October 10, 1979-Anew National Anthem-Arise ‘O compatriots was introduced

February 18,1982-Pope John Paul Ill visited Nigeria.

1983-President Shehu Shagari was reelected.

December 31, 1983– President Shehu Shagari’s government was ejected from powerin a Pelace coup: The Second Republic ended;  General Muhammadu Buhari became Head of Suite, and Chairman of the Supreme Military Council of Nigeria:

April 17, 1984 – The Buhari regime promulgated Decree No.4.  the “Public Officer’s Protection Again False Accusation” Decree, which made it an offense to ridicule the government by publication of false information

August 1985 – General Muhammadu Buhari was overthrown in a palace coup: General Ibrahim Babangida became Head of State and President of the Armed Forces Ruling Council of Nigeria.

June 27, 1986-Babangida introduced Structural Adjustment Program (SAP).

October 16, 1986– Prof. Wole Soyinka won the noble prize in Literature. This made him the first African to be a Nobel Prize winner.

May 9, 1987-Chief Obafemi Awolowo died.

23rd September 1987-General Ibrahim Babangida created two more states, bring the number of states in Nigeria to November 21.

July 7, 1987– The Directorate of mass Mobilization, Social Justice, Self-Reliance and Economic Reconstruction (MAMSER) ​​was launched.

April 4, 1988-Nigerian Police Force changed uniform to Black and Black.

August 12, 1989-Sam Okwaraji died in National Stadium.

August 29,1989– Two political parties were formed by Gen. Babangida (SOP and NRC)

23 September 1989-More Local GovernmentAreas were created.

April, 1990 – Middle Belt Christian officers, led by Major Gideon Okar, attempted to overthrow Ibrahim Babangida in an unsuccessful coup. In the early 90s: Babangida commissioned the Third Mainland Bridge.

November 11, 1991-Three days National Census started

27th August, 1991-General Ibrahim Babangida created  nine more states, making the number of states in Nigeria to be 30. See page 50 for the states created.

December 12, 1991-Babangida moved the seat of government to Abuja.

1992 – Two political parties, Social Democratic Party (SOP) and National Republican Convention (NRC) were established in President Ibrahim Babangida attempt to return to Civilian rule.  Primary elections were annulled in the fall.

June 12, 1993 – MKO Abiola won the Presidential election;  President Ibrahim Babangida annulled the election.

August 26, 1993 – President Ibrahim Babangida stepped down due to pressure from the Armed Forces Ruling Council.  Ernest Shonekan assumed the rein of power as the Interim Head of State, November 17, 1993-Ernest Shonekan was forced to resign from office.  Defense Minister, Sani Abacha became Head of State, and established the Provisional Ruling Council of Nigeria.

March 13, 1995 – The Abacha administration arrested former Head of State, Olusegun Obasanjo for allegedly supporting a secret coup plot.

November 10, 1995– Human and Environmental rights activist, Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight others were hanged by the SaniAbacha administration.

April 20, 1996;  Ibrahim Dasuki, former Sultan of Sokoto was deposed.

August 4, 1996-Under 23 Olympics team, won Olympic Gold Medal in Atlanta.

May 11, 1996-Dr.  Namdi Azikwe died at the age of 92yrsold.

October 1st, 1996-General Sani Abacha created 6 more states, thus bring the number of states to 36.

16 April 1998 – Special convention of partles adopted Abacha as a consensus candidate for the 15th August 1998 Presidential Election.

June 8, 1998- Head of State, Sani Abacha died from a heart attack, Abdusalami Abubakar became Head of State, and Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council of Nigeria.  The Abubakar administration lifted the ban on political activists, and initiated a one-year transition to return to civilian rule.

June 15, 1998 – Former Head of State, Olusegun Obasanjo was released from prison.

May 17, 1999-Brigadier Gen Tunde ldigbon died.

February 10, 1999 -Former Head of State, Olusegun Obasanjo won the presidential election.

May 29, 1999 – The Nigerian Fourth Republic was inaugurated.  Olusegun Obasanjo was sworn in as the second Executive President of Nigeria.

December 19, 1999 – President Obasanjo ordered troops to raid the town of Odi in the Niger Delta, in response to the murder of twelve policemen at the hands of the local militia;  The troops razed the town of Odi.

January, 27,2000 – Sharia law was established in the predominantly Muslim Zamfara state;  Eleven other states in the north followed suit.

May, 2000 – Religious riots erupted in Kaduna over the implementation of Sharia law.

June 5, 2000- The Obasanjo administration established the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) to tackle the human and ecological issues in the Niger Delta region of southern Nigeria.

February 9, 2001-GSM Operators were licensed to commence operations in Nigeria.

October 10, 2002– The International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled against Nigeria in favor ofCameroon over the disputed oil-rich Bakassi peninsula territory.  April, 2003-President Olusegun Obasanjo was reelected as president.

May 29, 2003-President Olusegun Obasanjo was sworn in for a second term president.

4-18 October, 2003-All African Games (COJA) were held in Abuja, more than 10,000 foreigners visited the country.

July 29, 2003-Nigeria Satellite, Nig SAT -1 was launched into space at the Military Base of Russia at 7:12 am Nigerian Time.

August 1,2003-Charles Taylor was granted refugee status in Nigeria by president Obasanjo.

5-8December, 2003-Common Wealth Head of Government Meeting (CHOGM) was held in Nigeria which had the queen of England Queen Elizabeth ll in Attendance.

July 19, 2003-0rganizationof African Unity (OAU) changed to African Union.  2004- Ethnoreligious violence erupted in Plateau State;  President Obasanjo declared a state of emergency in the state.

August 13, 2004- The dreaded Okija shrine in Okija, Anambra State was demolished by the Police.

May 18, 2004 –President Olusegun Obasanjo, declared a state of emergency in Plateau State and the Governor Joshua Dariye was suspended from office on allegation of corruption and money laundering.  Major Gen. Chris Alli (Rtd) was appointed Sole Administrator.

November 9.2004 – Chief Chris Uba launched attack on the Anambra State government house, bombing the Governors Office at Akwa.

December 12. 2004-Enyimba Football club of Aba won the Prestigious CAF Cup the second time, thus becoming the first club side in Africa to win the cup back to back.

January 17,2005-Tafa Balogun, Inspector General Of Police was remove from office.  DIG Sunday Ehindero was appointed acting Inspector General

March 9, 2005 -Ahmadu Alli, former Federal Commissioner for Education was elected the chairman of PDP after the resignation of Audu Ogbe.

April 5, 2005-Adolphus Wabara, former senate president resigned.  April 2,2005- Pope John Paul Il died.

April 19, 2005 – Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, a German was elected the ‘265th Pope as Pope Benedict XVI.

May 31, 2005-NEPAchanged to Power Holding Company of Nigeria PHCN

Oct. 22nd 2005-Stella Obasanjo, wife of Nigeria’s president died in Malaga Spain shortly after a cosmetic surgery.

2005 July- Paris Club of rich lenders agrees to write off two-thirds of Nigeria’s $ 30bn foreign debt.

2006 January onwards – Militants in the Niger Delta attack pipelines and other oil facilities and kidnap foreign oil workers.  The rebels demand more control over the region’s oil wealth.  The first woman to become a president in Africa is Ellen Sirleaf Johnson.  She was sworn in as the president of Liberia on January 16, 2006.

2006 February More than 100 people are killed when religious violence flares in mainly- Muslim towns in the north and in the southern city of Onitsha.

March 29, 2006-Nigeria witnessed total and partial eclipse. Of the sun across the country.

March 29, 2006 -Charles Taylor was arrested along Bornu State border in an attempt to cross the border to Cameroun.

21-25 March 2006-National Head Count of persons and Houses tagged “Census 2006” took place nationwide.

 

Notable Personalities in Nigeria’s History

Bishop Samuel Adjai (Ajayi) Crowther (1807 – December 31, 1891) was a linguist and the first African Anglican bishop in Nigeria.  Ajayi was captured by Fulani slave raiders in 1821 and sold to Portuguese slave traders.  Rev. Dr. Crowther translated the Bible into the Yoruba language and compiled a Yoruba dictionary. The Yoruba Bible (Bibeli Mimo) was completed in the mid-1880’s, a few years before his death.

 

Grace Alele Williams: Mrs. Williams made her mark as a first class academician and later proved herself as a skilled administrator, she is one of the first Nigerian women to obtain a PhD in Mathematics.  She was also the country’s first female vice-chancellor (University of Benin 1985-1991)

 

Chinua Achebe (born November 16, 1930) is a Nigerian writer, poet and critic.  A diplomat in the ill-fated Biafran government of 1967-1970, Achebe is primarily interested in African politics, depictions of Africa and Africans in the West, pre-colonial African culture, and the effects of colonialism on African societies.

 

Akinola Aguda (1923-2001) was a Nigerian jurist and a former Chief Justice of Botswana.  Prior to becoming Chief Justice, he was a lawyer and a high court judge in the western region of Nigeria.  He was the first indigenous African to head the position of Chief Justice in Botswana.

 

Akinwande Oluwole “Wole” Soyinka (born 13 July 1934) is a Nigerian writer, poet and piaywright, Some consider him Africa’s most distinguished playwright, as he won the NObel Prize in Literature in 1986, the first African since Albert Camus so honored.  Soyinka has played an active role in Nigeria’s political history.

 

Dr Alex lfeanyichukwu Ekwueme (born October 21, 1932) From Oko, Anambra State, Nigeria was the second Vice-President of the Nigerian, serving 1979-1983

 

Dr. Chuba Wilberforce Okadigbo (December 17, 1941 September 25, 2003), was the President of the Nigeria Senate.

General Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, Ikemba Nnewi (born November 4, 1933) was the leader of the secessionist state of Biafra in Nigeria (1967-1970), during the Nigeria (1967-1970) during the Nigeria Civil War, and previously Military Governor of the Eastern Region of Nigeria.

Dennis Osadebay (June, 1911-Dec 1994) was a Nigerian politician, poet, journalist and former premier of the now defunct Mid-Western Region of Nigeria, which now comprises Edo and Delta State. He was one of the pioneering Nigerian poets who wrote in English.

 

Chief Emeka Anyaoku, GCVO, CON (born January 18, 1933) was the third Commonwealth Secretary-General and the first African to head that post.  He hails from Anambra.

 

Festus Okotie-Eboh (1919-1966) was a prominent and flamboyant Nigerian politician and former minister for finance during the administration of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.  Okotie- Eboh was assassinated along with Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa in the January 15, 1966 military coup which terminated the Nigerian First Republic, and thus civilian rule.

 

Chief Abdul-Ganiyu “Gani” Oyesola Fawehinmi (b. April 22, 1938) A distinguished lawyer, acclaimed author, publisher and philanthropist, He gained national and international recognition as a potent human rights crusader.  Fawehinmi has been apprehended and interned by different Nigerian military governments on more than 35 occasions since 1969.

 

Herbert Macaulay (1864-1946) was a Nigerian nationalist, politician, engineer, journalist, and musician.  He was the grandson of Samuel Ajayi Crowther, the first African Anglican bishop in Nigeria.  On June 24, 1923, I have founded the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP), the first Nigerian political party.  Herbert Macaulay is regarded as the father of Nigerian nationalism.

 

Michael Iheonukara Okpara (December 1920-December 17, 1984; was a political leader and Premier of Eastern Nigeria during the First Republic from.

 

Chief Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola (often referred to as MKO Abiola, August 24, 1937 – July 7, 1998) was a Nigerian Yoruba businessman, publisher and politician, though he was an accountant by training. He ran for the presidency in 1993, and won, but was denied the opportunity to become President when the election results were annulled by a court during the regime of Ibrahim Babangida.

 

General Murtala Ramat Mohammed born (November 8, 1938February 13, 1976) was a military ruler (Head of the Federal Military Government) of Nigeria.

 

Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe (November 16, 1904-May 11, 1996), usually referred to as Nnamdi Azikiwe, or, informally and popularly, as “Zik”, was the founder of modern Nigerian nationalism and the first President of Nigeria, holding the position throughout the Nigerian First Republic.

 

Obafemi Awolowo (1909-1987)  was a Nigerian politician and founder of the Action Group political party.  He was the first prime minister of the Western Region between 1959 and 1960.

 

Chief Anthony Eromosele Enahoro, the Adolo of Uromi, was born July 22, 1923 in Uromi, Esan-land, in present-day Edo State.  As a member of the Nigerian Federal legislature, on March 31, 1953 he moved the first motion for Nigeria’s independence in CURRENT AFFAIRS 1957.

Samuel Ladoke Akintola or “S.L.A.” (July 6, 1910-January 15, 1966) was a Nigerian politician, lawyer and orator.  Akintola returned to Nigeria in 1949 and teamed up with other educated Nigerians from the western region to form the Action Group (AG) under the leadership of Chief Obafemi Awolowo.  Akintola was assassinated in Ibadan the capital of Western Region on the day of Nigeria’s first military coup of 15th January 1966.

Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (December 1912 – January 15, 1966) was a Nigerian politician, and the first prime minister of an independent Nigeria .  He was overthrown and killed in a military coup on January 15, 1966.

Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello, Sardauna of Sokoto (1910-1966) was a Nigerian politician, and was the first premier of the Northern Nigeria region from 1954-1966.  He was assassinated during a 15 January 1966 military coup which toppled Nigeria’s post- independence government.

Tunde Idiagbon (September 14, 1942- March 24, 1999) was a Nigerian soldier and a one-time member of the Nigerian military junta which ruled that country.  In this role, he was the de-facto second-in-command and was responsible for implementing many of the government’s policies.  Chief amongst these was the War Against Indiscipline (WAI), which was a campaign to eradicate corruption and disorderliness in Nigerian life.

Fela Anikulapo Kuti (born Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti, October 15, 1938 – August 2, 1997), or simply Fela, was a Nigerian multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, pioneer of Afrobeat music, human rights activist, and political maverick.  He was jailed by most military ruler due to his song from him which was against government’s misrule.  He died during the Abacha’s rigime after he was released from jail.

Cyprian Ekwensi (born September 26, 1921) is a Nigerian, short-story writer, and children’s books author.

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