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CHAPTER ONE

1.0.      INTRODUCTION

Throughout history, human beings have been faced with disastrous catastrophes which must be ensured in order to survive. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) caused by the Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) remains one of the most incomprehensible disasters for humanity. An estimated number of people living with HIV stood at over 33.3 million at the end of year 2007. Of this figure, 22.5million are from Sub-Saharan Africa, the region with most affected victims in the global AIDS epidemic (UAIDS/WHO, 2008).

Generally, it is believed that the media is a powerful and influential means of educating the public on many topics and issues, especially AIDS. Santelli (2008) observes that the radio is the most common source of information for youths, because of its entertainment value as well as its accessibility and low costs. HIV/AIDS information from radio and television inform of advertisements, news and live show constitutes the major ways through which adolescents gain HIV information.

Also, Sweat (2009) summits that many research are continually been published in this direction, with the hope that a successful prevention programs will checkmate the populace against indiscriminate sexual behaviour, adopt safe sex practices and internalize AIDS risk reduction bheaviours.

Keeling etal (2006) captures the vivid image when they note that in order to achieve this goal, government of various nations and other stakeholders which include international bodies and donors agencies have supported and implement a number of enlightenment programs worldwide in Nigeria, there are weekly radio programs designed to disseminate family planning, HIV/AIDs and other reproductive health information sponsored by the Vision project (Keating, etal, 2007).

Although a substantial number of the reviewed studies converge on the positive impact of education/enlightenment campaigns o prevention programs, there are few divergent views on the most effective method while Li et al (2010) observed that in programs attempting to bring about behavior change among adolescents, peer-led health education

 

has been demonstrated to be an effective method of programme delivery studios conducted by Wakefield, Lokan, and Hornik (2010) considered media campaigns as the best way to educate young people about the disease and condom use. The objective of this study is to examine the role of radio pu public enlightenment programmes in curbing HIV/AIDS.

1.1.      RADIO

Radio is the use of electro – ability to’ magnetize waves. It also could mean to transmit or receive electric signals or impulses without connectivity wires (Adeosun et al, 2012). Also,  Odetoyinbo (2012)  summits that radio is the transmission and reception of electromagnet waves of radio frequency, especially these carrying sound messages. Adeosun (2005) explains that television is purchased by elites and the haves (rich) in the society. The newspapers and magazines are patronized by the literate audience, but radio serves all classes in the society, the rich, the poor, the average, the young and the  Old. The educated and rural dwellers are not exempted from programmes presented in local languages on radio.

In explaining the significance of radio Nwanze mass medium, even in the rural areas. This is because it is considerably cheap to buy and maintain. The medium and the channel of radio broadcasting appeals to the literate and illiterate equally. Radio, the first giant in the electronic media owes its biith and development to James clax Maxwell, Heinrish Hertx, Le De Forest and Civighiemo MwCovi (Adeosun etal, 2012).

1.2.      EMERGENCE OF RADIO BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA.

Broadcast scholars in Nigeria seem to agree that radio broadcasting predates television in Nigeria. Academic records also reveal that broadcasting in Nigeria dates back to 1932 when the idea of “Empire Broadcasting” which was conceived by Lord Reight started to materialize (Orunsola, 2009).

Aina (2007) explains that the grand plan for broadcasting in Nigeria by the Colonial

Master was to link Nigeria and other chosen centres in the British Colonial territories to

Britain through re-transmitted radio signals from Daventry, England.

Furthermore, Orunsola (2007) observes that only a few priviledged Nigerians had the

rediffiision box as it was more of a reserve British citizens working within the colonial

territory and by extension, some Nigerian elites.   It relayed  programmes of the British

Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) to inform and entertain its listeners, mainly Britaa, and

as such, minimize their feeling of loneliness.

Aina (2007), Orunsola (2009) summits that the wired broadcasting was commission in

Lagos on 1 December, 1935 but it was short – lived as birth of the Nigerian Broadcasting

Service (NBS) in April 1950 led to the death of the Radio Distribution Service (RDS).

As Odetoyinbo (2001) has aptly noted, the Nigerian Broadcasting Service had stations in Ibadan, Abeokuta Warri, Enugu, Onitsha, Port Harcourt, Calabar and a few other major

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cities in Nigeria. Moreso, Ojebode ^Adegbola (2007) stated that on October 31, 1959, the Western Nigerian Government with Chief Obafemi Awolowo the helm of affairs began transmission of programmes from Ibadan under the umbrella of the Western Nigeria Television Station (WNTN).

1.3.     FUNCTIONS OF RADIO

Traditionally, the functions of broadcast media of radio and television are to educate, entertain and inform. Added to these are enlightenment, as well as transmission of socio-cultural and political heritage from one generation and other generation (Adeosun et al,

2011). In the same vein, Aina (2003) quoting Lasswell posits that the media are expected

to perform three roles’, surveillance of the entertainment, the correlation .function dlthe

transmission of cultural heritage.

Aina (2003) further explains that the first enjoins the media to survey the political, economic and social environments for early disclosure of opportunities and threats, thus setting the agents for public concern and action. The second refers to the interpretation of

information gathered through its surveillance system so that they can be well understood

form the basis of social action.   The third emphasizes the need to communicate the norms, values and attitudes of the past to the new generation.

 

Wanze (2003) sums up the roles and functions of radio as follows:

  1. It is a very effective medium of reaching the masses, mostly the grassroots.
  2. It transcends geographical, linguistic Mother traditional barriers.

According to Okunna (1994), in Nigeria research evidence shows that the use of radio as

a medium of information is truly widespread, even among rural population   cited in

Adeosunetal(2011).

Also Adeosun (2005) observes that in the settings of mostly illiterate, poor and rural

communities of most third world countries, radio broadcasting is the most effective

medium of Mass Communication.  It is also an effective tool of mass mobilization ^era

potent tool for the enhancement and creation of development.

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