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Download complete project work titled Refining Of Palm Kernel Oil

Abstract on Refining Of Palm Kernel Oil

This work studied the refining of crude palm kernel oil derived from the kernels within the nut of a palm fruit.

This research project was aimed at reducing the non-glycerides
present in oil in their crude form using an alkali method of refining.
The crude palm kernel oil was first washed with distilled water by
heating  the  mixture  in  an  electric  heater  for  about  2  hours  to
reduce  the  impurities  present  in  the  oil  in  their  crude  form,
degummed  with  phosphoric  acid  and  neutralized  with  NaOH
(caustic  soda).The  saponification  value,  iodine  value  and  acid
value was analyzed and their values are: for crude palm kernel oil,

33.1, 695.45 and 746.13 respectively, for neutralized palm kernel oil, 11.22, 725.6 and 687.24 respectively

Chapter One on Refining Of Palm Kernel Oil


Palm kernel oil, the second most consumed lauric acid group oil   is   derived   from   the   dried   kernels   of   the   oil   palm, ElaeisGuinensis.

Palm  kernel  oil (co-product  of  palm  oil)  and  coconut  oil

comprises less than 5 percent of the total natural fats and oils, but they  are  important  feed  stocks  of  the  oleochemical  industry. Coconut oil is commercially a major source of lauric acid, together with palm kernel oil and to small extent babassu oil. It belongs to the so called lauric oils, which are characterized by their high lauric oil content of approximately 50 percent.

The  lauric  oils  are  highly  desirable  materials  in  the oleochemical industry world-wide because of the important of the lauric  fraction  especially  in  the  manufacture  of  soap  and detergents.


Two distinctly different types of oils are produced from the fruit of the south East Asia and African oil palm, ElaeisGuinensis Central American palm ElaeisOleifera.

Palm  oil  is  obtained  from  the  fleshy  part  of  the  fruit  which
resembles an over sized olive about the size of a small chicken
egg. Palm kernel oil is derived from that kernel within the nut. Well
over 98 percent of the fatty acids in palm oil belong to the C: 16
and C: 18 group where as approximately 64 percent of the fatty
acids in palm kernel oil consist of C: 12 and C: 14 lauric group.

A palm tree produces 10-15 fresh fruit bunches throughout the year weighing  5-23kg  (10-50lb) each. The bunches are cut from the tree with knives attached to long poles and are transported to the oil mill. There they are sterilized by steam at about 40psig for 56-75 minutes to deactivate lipase enzymes and loosen the fruits from the stalk.

The fruits are knocked loose from the stalk in thresher drums and passed through a digester to convert the fleshy pulp to mash. Then the mash is pressed by twin-screw expellers or hydraulically to  yield  red  crude  oil.  The  shells  of  the  nuts  cracked  and  the kernels  are  separated,  dried  and  bagged  for  later  solvent extraction  or  mechanically  pressed  in  a  fashion  similar  to  the processing of raw crop oil seeds.

For satisfactory release of the kernels from the fruits, the requirements are that the oil bearing mesocarp shall be removed and the shells cracked without damage to the kernels.

Palm kernel oil is not usually extracted on the plantations, though occasionally mills contain press designed for this purpose.
The conditions for the release of palm kernel oil, which is
liquid  at  tropical  day  temperatures,  are  different  from  those  of palm oil, but similar to those of copra and hand oil bearing seeds.
Very small quantities are extracted in producing countries by
primitive means but the greater bulk of the palm kernel produced are subjected to industrial process.

Although the extraction of palm kernel oil from palm kernel is not a new project, this project is capitalized on using different types of refining processes to determine the one that will yield a higher output.

Further cultural and agricultural practices differ for its fruit
species  depending  on  the  type  of  soil,  different  samples  from
different localities were collected in consideration to its essential
commercial plantings on which each sample produces high quality
fruit/seed and profitable yield. Thus this research study is being


Palm kernel oils consist mainly of glycerides, and like other oils in their crude form, may consist of small and variable portions of non-glyceride components as well. In order to render the oils to an edible form, some of these non glycerides need to be either removed  or  reduced  to  an  acceptable  level  so  as  to  meet  the request of the buyers.

Therefore, this project aims at reducing the non-glycerides
present  in  oil  in  their  crude  form  using  the  chemical (alkali)

method of refining.





  1. Reduction of the free fatty acids from 5.0 to 0.03 percent or
  2. Production of a fully deodourized product.
  3. Operation without  substantially  greater  utilities  consumption than a standard deodourizer.
  4. Recovery of the fatty acids from the sparge stream.
  5. Obtaining a mixture  of traicylglycerols with the  desired  solid content profiles over the range of product used
  6. Preparation and  storage  of  semi-solid  products  with  desire textures.


The  refining  of  crude  palm  kernel  oil  is  converting  it  to quality edible oil renewing objectionable impurities to the desired levels in the most efficient manner where possible, losses in the desirable components are kept minimal.

After refining of crude palm kernel oil, a good quality has low free fatty acid (FFA) content, does not contaminate with water or other impurities and has a good bleacheability.



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