A profession is a vocation whose practice is founded upon an understanding of the theoretical structure of some departments of learning and upon the capabilities accompanying such as understanding. This understanding and these capabilities are applied to, vital practical affairs of man. The practices of the profession are modified by knowledge of a generalized nature and by the accumulated wisdom and experience of mankind, which serves to correct the vital needs of man considers its first ethical imperative to be altruistic service to the client K. F. Andrews.
The act of investing in Housing co-operative is only the first step towards the investment of capital. In order to achieve its objective the Housing co-operative enterprises must be successfully and profitably operated as a business.
Moreso, thee is a need to crate this inevitable awareness that Housing co-operative business should be managed effectively, profitability and professionally.
Therefore, this work seeks to identify what development is all about and attempts an evaluation of the level of involvement of professional Housing co-operatives in Enugu using Trans-Ekulu and Abakpa Housing Estate as a test case.
Co-operative societies in Nigeria are believed to have started between the period of the first and second world wars and more especially in the (Beer 1976). The operation of co-operative societies was first regulated by the coming into being of the co-operative societies ordinance of 1935. But even before the above stated period, there were successful attempts by indigenous groups at the traditionally styled co-operative societies commonly known as “Isusu”. The success of co operative in Nigeria is such that, by 1965 there were about 5,5000 co-operative societies with a total of 358,000 members. To further assist in the smooth operation of co- operatives, specialized banks have long been established across the country to cater for their banking needs.
One school of thought said that a co-operative society is a group of people organized to provide housing to members of he group. The co-operative may cover financing of the project by group contribution actual participation. The government or any institution may provide finances and materials, while the individual member of the co-operative society will provide the labour.
FUNCTIONS OF HOUSING CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES
1. Provision of loans and credit facilities to member:
Housing co-operative society links co-operative members to financial institutions. Banks government and other institution find it easier to deal with group interested in housing development instead of individual basis. The housing co-operative society scrutinizes individual members credit wordiness for housing loans negotiates better terms for loans and undertakes to generate such housing loans. Supervises or monitors the use of the housing loans/credit o avoid diversion, mismanagement or misapplication etc. in most cases, the problem is checked through the provision of building materials in kind to members by their housing co-operative society.
ii. Refund or Repayment of Housing Loans.
Co-operative society involved in housing scheme ensures that loans credits with interest are timely repaid to financial institutions that made it available by members. The society ensures this through early notification of beneficiary member of the due/maturity date.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The housing problem in Nigeria is more pronounced in the urban areas, which have been growing in he member of housing units available for occupation.
Low and middle-income earners constituting over 95% of urban work force wee the most affected. The role of housing co-operatives in housing delivery and established ways of using the co-operative societies to increase the number of residential houses for low and middle income dwellers in our urban center. The Nigeria building and road research those of its study institute (NBRRI) made in Nigeria a prototype houses that can be funded by urban housing co-operatives.
The role of co-operative societies was first regulated by the member of the co-operative societies. The group forms what might be regarded as the traditional styled co-operative society commonly known as “Isusu”.
May definition have been proffered for co-operative by scholars and researcher but perhaps the most encompassing is by Savage and Volkin (1965) which states that co-operative society is a voluntary contractual organization or persons having a mutual ownership interest in providing themselves a need service (s) on a non profit basis. In a co-operative, the investment and operational risk, benefits gained or losses incurred are shared equitably by its members in proportion to their use of the co-operative services.
The definition applies generally to any co-operative society, but when a society serves the purpose of constructing owning managing dwelling and also for common and acquisition or for maintenance of completed houses, it can be refereed to a housing co-operative (Levin 1981).
Some of the problems include
1. Galloping inflation, which led to every increase in price of building materials.
2. Low in disposable income available, its members to contribute.
3. In adequate release of funds due to bottle need in the parent company by The National Housing Programme (NHP) 1994/95, imitated by the immediate paste minister of works/housing Alhaji (Dr) Lateef Kayode.
1.2 BACKGROUND AND NEEDS FOR THE STUDY
In most developed countries, the housing (shelter) sector contributes significantly to the performance of their economics. An increase in the housing market activities usually indicates a strong economy while a decrease in the market shows weakness in the economy. Most countries have often increased, investment in the housing sector as a way of boosting domestic economic growth, and as a tool to fight domestic recession.
Over the past decade the potential of the housing sector in enhancing the social and economic development of developing countries have become very apparent. Housing construction is labour intensive. It creates employment, especially of unskilled and semi-skilled labour. The construction of low – income housing in particular, relies, most of its inputes on locally produced materials, while crating demand for other good and services. This is in addition to developing the necessary infrastructure required for economic expansion and healthy living environment of the people.
However, the seeming intractability of the housing problem in Enugu shows clearly that as a state, we are yet to commit our selves to a purposeful and consistent housing delivery system.
This is dispute the irritation and application of many innovative laws and policies at federal and state levels and the setting up of numerous agencies charged with the responsibilities of implementing various aspects of the national housing policy. The state earlier but federal and state government had established agencies and enacted legislation armed at establishing a sustainable basis for providing housing for low – income families in particular and other income groups. At the federal housing authority (FHA), the housing division of the federal ministry of works and housing (FMWH) and the urban development bank of Nigeria (UDBN) Plc have been established, similarly policies such as mortgage institutions Decree No 53 of 1992, urban and Regional Planning Decree, as well as the land use were enacted. At the state level, most have established, Housing Corporation, Housing development in ministries of works and housing and more recently, has come to the promulgation of rent edicts. However, despite all the effort, the housing problem has remained seemingly intractable.
1.3 AIMS AN OBJECTIVES
The aimed ways of using the co-operative to increase the number of residential house available for low and middle level income urban dwellers. The stated aim is to be achieved through the following objectives.
1. To highlight the advantages of housing co-operative based on self-help.
2. To study the low and middle level income earners responses to the idea of housing co-operatives.
3. To enumerate the various types of housing co-operatives and identify the one(s) most viable in Enugu.
4. To relative urban low and middle level income to appropriate proto type lowest residential accommodation that can be funded by the co-operatives and
5. To produce a useful data for the drafty of the proposed housing co-operative decree.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Government, in this project has tried to point out the enormity of housing facing Nigeria. It is in agreement with the fact that finance represents the hallmarks of an efficient housing policy. It also agreed that the current National Housing Policy is very comprehension enough to take the nation to year 2010, but with some modification.
Effective housing finance coupled with sound management and cheap building material with undoubtedly help in the implementation of other aspects of the policy.
The research has through this project highly lighted certain issues and problem that effects housing delivery general, and the disbursement of the national House Fund (NHF) in particular. The researcher is of the opinion that, if we channel all our efforts of the National housing Fund (NHF) will be more effective.
Low – income earners. The development of local production of building materials has been examined in this project. It is geared towards achieving self-sufficiency in the materials, and bring them within the economic reach of most Nigeria the low income earners especially. The project takes an inclusive look at strategies of achieving this with the contention that the development of local production of building materials will significantly influence housing development.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
Enugu the capital of Enugu state was chosen as case study. It focused on middle and low – income earners in Enugu East and Enugu West local government councils.
Trans – Ekulu and Abakpa Housing Co-operation were chosen.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What are the advantages of housing co-operatives based on self –help.
2. How do the low and middle level income earners, respond to the idea of housing co-operatives.
3. Relate the urban low and middle level income to appropriate profit types low cost residential accommodation that can be founded by co-operatives.
4. What is the useful data for the drafting of proposed housing co-operative?
This dissertation, like every other research work, had some inherent hindrances. The major limitation was the level of literacy and poor public awareness towards research especially as it affects co-operative societies. Some of the respondents exhibited a great deal of hostilities even in ordinary approach.
Some of the people interviewed were skeptical and kept back certain vital data due to their bias about the out come of the research.
Finally, finance was a major obstacle while the time frame for the project completion was not enough for a project of this nature. Despite, these problems the researcher derived immense pressure working in working on this subject. This research is limited by lack of sufficient data and time.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.8.1 Low Income Group
Low income group is defined as al wage earners and a self employed people whose annual income is five thousand naria (5, 000.00) or below as at 1988 or whose arrival income is 20% or below of the maximum annual income of the highest salary grade level within the civil service structure, which ever is high.
1.8.2 Middle Income Group
Middle-income group is also hereby defined as workers whose annuals income is above 20% and below 50% of the maximum annual income of the highest salary grade level.
1.8.3 Housing co-operative
The definition of housing co-operative was agreed to be “a formal association of members physical, social and economic living condition, utilizing self – help principles.
22.214.171.124 The “PHYSICAL” aspects may include; Slum and squatter up grading programmes, site and services programme core housing project, home improvement, progrmmes or new construction on private land.
126.96.36.199 The “SOCIAL” Components may be defined as community facilities and social activities, including such things as daycare centers, religious centers, school community centers, health, and sanitation facilities, communication and transportation network.
188.8.131.52 The “ECONOMIC” aspects may include building materials productions centers, employment generation activities, promotion of small and shopping areas (e.g. co-operative consumer stores).
184.108.40.206 The “SELF – HELP” Part includes, but is not limited to self – construction or sweat equity. Also self – help encompasses a variety of beneficiaries impute such as participation, acting as the general contractor responsible for the hiring and managing of architects and small builders he reactivation and arrangements for service the exchange of labour and skills (mutual self –help) and the management of the co-operative it self through democratic process.