The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex education as a strategy of addressing the problem of abortion in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. In this study, a survey design was used, as well as simple random sampling procedures. The population consists of students and instructors from selected secondary schools in Kebbi State’s Arewa Dandi local government area. The researcher purposely chose 200 responders for the sample size, of which 150 were verified. For data collection, a self-created and verified questionnaire was employed. Frequency tables were used to analyse the gathered and approved surveys. The hypotheses were examined with the chi-square statistical technique. The data show that the following elements impact the sexual behaviour of secondary school students: culture, lifestyle, ignorance, poverty, traditional beliefs, and peer influence. The study also demonstrates that the teaching of sex education has a considerable impact on students’ willingness to engage in unsafe abortion. Further research revealed that the teaching of sex education had a considerable impact on the incidence of STDs among secondary school students. As a result, it is advised that education curriculum makers use extra-curricular activities in schools to supplement official classroom experiences in promoting sexual health awareness. Secondary school administrations should invite guest lecturers to provide health presentations to students outside of the typical student learning process on a regular basis to boost students’ understanding about sexuality health. Just to name a few.
1.1 Background Of The Study
The obstacles that the current generation of Nigerian teenagers face in terms of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted illnesses, rape, incest, unlawful abortion, and a variety of other issues constitute the foundation of this research. The world has developed and requires solutions to the issues that sexuality education aims to address.
Various studies show that a lot has been done in Nigeria in terms of sex education. “Sex education is a lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, values about one’s identity, relationship, and intimacy, which encompasses sexual development, reproductive health, interpersonal relationships, affection, intimacy, body images, and gender roles,” according to the Federal Ministry of Education (Nigeria).
According to UNESCO (2009), sex education is an age-appropriate, culturally relevant method to educating about sex and relationships by offering scientifically correct, realistic, non-judgmental information. The Nigerian curriculum has influenced it through the years in areas such as Basic Science, Physical and Health Education, Social Studies, and so on, with its version of sexuality education known as the Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) curriculum.
Historically, some components of sex education have been taught in the family before any other important variables such as peer group, society, media, school, and so on, in the form of stories, conversations, literatures, warnings, and so on. Because of the significance of sex education and the omission of some parts, it is now commonly referred to as Comprehensive Sex Education (CSE), which encompasses biological, sociocultural, psychological, and spiritual components of sexuality (Adrienne et al, 2007).
Over the years, various definitions of sexuality have been proposed. Some people consider sexuality to be solely sexual intercourse, which is considered a rudimentary perspective of it. Sex is defined by the National Cancer Institute Dictionary of Cancer Terms as “a person’s behaviour, desires, and attitudes towards sex and physical intimacy with others.” According to WHO (2006), sex is a vital component of being human, which includes sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. This demonstrates that sexuality extends beyond sexual intercourse and encompasses our complete being as sexual beings.
Others regard sex as a person’s sexual preference, such as homosexual, heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian, gay, and so on. Sexuality is innate, although it may be influenced by variables such as culture, media, peer group, religion, family, and school.
According to Weeks (2003), sex is the cultural expression of our body pleasure. Ikpe (2004) defined sexuality as the fundamental core of one’s humanity, encompassing one’s self-image, gender, physical appearance, and reproductive capabilities, implying that sexuality is a natural component of existence. Sexuality necessitates the necessity for sexual education.
According to WHO (2012), an unsafe abortion is one that is conducted by someone who lacks the requisite expertise or in an environment that lacks basic medical standards, or both. Women of reproductive age account for 57% of abortions in Sub-Saharan Africa, and unsafe abortion is the major cause of maternal death in this age group. Furthermore, abortions (particularly unsafe abortions) have the potential to jeopardise women’s reproductive health and result in serious, often life-threatening complications. Furthermore, unsafe abortions place a significant burden on women and society due to the serious health consequences that frequently occur.
In Nigeria, the problem is aggravated by socio-cultural and theological views that see abortion as murder and carry heavy punishments for practitioners. These conditions contribute to women seeking illegal abortion services from private providers who, for the most part, are unskilled and perform procedures in risky surroundings using dangerous intrusive methods. Regardless of Nigeria’s punitive abortion laws, the incidence of induced abortion was estimated to be 33 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2012. A recent pooled study of Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey data (NDHS) spanning 2011-2018 found that 3.8% of married women have ever aborted a pregnancy.
In Nigeria, there is a perceived influence of sex education on young sexual conduct. Adolescents have been shown to make better choices about their sexuality, such as abstinence, increasing age of first intercourse, contraception usage, withstanding social pressure, having a positive self-image, and so on (P.R.A., 2009). Based on the foregoing, this study seeks to evaluate Sex education as a strategy of addressing the problem of abortion.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The fact that the number of sexually transmitted infections is increasing in both teenage boys and girls (Fanfair and Workowski, 2014) indicates that urgent and persistent action is required to improve the population’s future health and economic output. Given that naivety can breed undesirable outcomes, it is critical that a child receives sex education (Shashikumar et al, 2012). A systematic review research to assess the efficacy of a sex education intervention found that it had a beneficial influence on teenage sexual conduct [Garzon-Orjuela, 2013].
Since the approval and implementation of a policy on sexuality education in Nigeria in 1999, with curriculum modifications that teach sexuality education (Shiffman, & Kunnu, 2012), the efficacy has been mixed. Currently, there is growing concern about the high rate of adolescent pregnancies and the spread of STDs and STIs [Garzon-Orjuela, 2013]. Nigeria’s teenage female fertility rate of 104 births per 1000 is one of the highest in the world [World Bank Group, 202]. This includes a surge in STDs such as chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhoea, some forms of hepatitis, syphilis, and trichomoniasis, with HIV being the most prevalent [World Bank Group, 2021]. A research on teenagers in secondary school in 2012 found that 55.7% and 21.9% of males and girls in the study site engaged in masturbation [Amoo, 2020]. According to a recent research done by the Resource Centre for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP), almost half of teenagers participate in oral sex and one out of every ten adolescents engages in anal sex. Recent trends have raised concerns about early sexual debuts in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Amoo (2020) observed that the median age at first sex for males in Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Zambia is 18 years old, while the median age at first marriage for women in Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia is 17 years old [Amoo, 2017]. According to a similar survey by Durowade et al. , the average age at first intercourse among adolescents is 15 years. Adolescents accounted for 80% of difficulties during abortion operations, according to the Nigerian Association for the Promotion of Adolescent Health and Development (NAPAHD) in 2003. Given the high risk of sexual conduct and its consequences among teenagers, the coverage and impact of sex education in developing countries, particularly in Nigeria, where adolescents account for just 22% of the population and are plagued by STIs.
According to a research done in a Nigerian state, fewer than a quarter of the respondents were exposed to sex education, and more than two-thirds of them participated in early sexual engagement. According to many studies on teenage sexual conduct in Nigeria, there appears to be insufficient, incorrect direction, yet the enormous annihilation of the 1999 sexuality education strategy cannot be proved. Adolescent sexual behaviour education, or its ineffectiveness, is detrimental to adolescent education, future economic activity, and their well-being, as well as the country’s poverty or wealth level. As a result, the purpose of this research is to evaluate sex education as a strategy of addressing the problem of abortion.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The overall aim of this study is to critically assess Sex education as a means of solving the problem of abortion. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- Identify the factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students.
- Find out if sex education is effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools.
- Find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced students indulgence in Abortion.
- Find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced the prevalence of STD among secondary school students.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- What are the factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students?
- Is sex education effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools?
- Has the teaching of sex education significantly influenced students indulgence in abortion?
- Has the teaching of sex education significantly influenced the prevalence of STD among secondary school students?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H0: Sex education has no significant impact on the sexual behaviour of secondary school students.
H1: Sex education has a significant impact on the sexual behaviour of secondary school students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It has been recorded that sexuality education influences sexual behaviour of students (Rice, 1995). The study was to investigate the claims of the perceived influence of sexuality education on the sexual behaviour of secondary school students ranging from delayed sex to positive self image. This claim leads the researcher to embark on this project.
Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the impact of sex education among youths in Nigerian secondary schools.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study borders on the Sex education as a means of solving the problem of abortion among secondary school students. The study will further identify the factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students, find out if sex education is effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools, find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced students indulgence in sexual practices, and find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced the prevalence of STD among secondary school students. The study is however delimited to selected secondary school in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Adolescent: Transitional stage of physical and psychological development that
generally occurs during the period of puberty to legal adulthood.
Gender: The categorizing of an individual as being male or female.
Sexual behaviour: These are actions that lead to reproduction and stimulation of
sexual organs for satisfaction without conception.
Sexuality: Integral part of who one is, believe, feel and response to others.
Sexuality education: The teaching and learning process that deals with sexuality.
1.10 Organisations of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.[email protected].[email protected].