The effect of audio visual aids on teaching and learning of business studies in junior secondary schools in Ojo Local government area of Lagos state
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study was on the effect of audio visual aids on teaching and learning of business studies in junior secondary schools in Ojo Local government area of Lagos state. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school Ojo Local government area of Lagos state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
- Background of the study
From time immemorial, audio-visual materials existed but were not incorporated into educational system. According to Green (2012), the advent of audio-visual materials is long but it is the use that has been limited until in the 1960s and 1970s that libraries realized the use of these materials and started incorporating them into the library collections for future use. Summer stressing on the advent of the materials stated that “before man developed speech as a means of communication, he expressed himself in terms of drawings, signals and symbols”. The point here is that the use of audio-visual materials started as early as man’s civilization began. This is evident in their attempt to communicate ideas. Green (2012) has this to say; “in time of antiquity, man carried pictures on rocks for conveying ideas”. Ani (2010) supporting the introduction of audio-visual aids observed that as far back as the 1920s audio-visual materials came to be used in teaching in the United State of America. According to Dike (2013), the various methods of teaching informally such as observation, participation and the use of the senses are forms of audio-visual resources in our indigenous Nigerian Education. The child is asked to observe carefully without verbal instructions and to participate in domestic science, craft, and agriculture, the child is able to grasp knowledge from different fields unconsciously. Thus every child has the right to knowledge and information especially that which concerns his cultural heritage”. It is imperative therefore that in cultures whose traditions are essentially of the oral rather than the writer kind, knowledge and information transfer be affected by using verbal instructions and the preservation of their cultural arts. This is the meaning of the story telling sessions in our indigenous African education. In modern times, the value of instructional materials has been realized of late in this country and attempts are being made by all organs connected with education to see that audio-visual materials are used in teaching and learning situations. For examples, University of Nigeria, Nsukka has established Curriculum Development and Instructional Materials Centre (CUDIMAC) to promote the utilization of various types of audio-visual resources and media in the school. In advances in librarianiship, (Hallett, and Faria, 2006) points out that, books are not the only way the libraries can extend the available information to the public but other means such as pictures, filmstrips, slides, recording etc. should be acquired to supplement book resources and to substitute for books when they are not available on a particular topic. That is, in the modern educational methods modern technologies have given rise to various means of teaching which make it easier for both the teacher and learner to achieve their aims of teaching and learning.
This is sometimes followed by some discussion and students may ask questions afterwards, about what they have learnt. They may draw pictures themselves of what has been discussed and that is all. Business studies teaching is more than this, that is why adequate teaching aids are needed in teaching the subject at any level of education. Moreover, the methods require in the teaching of business studies such as inquiry, discussion, Role-playing simulation (both activity and historical) demand a lot of preparation on the part of teachers and students alike. In order to communicate effectively or elicit the desired responses, there is the need to employ different ways and means (audio-visual aids) which will appeal to most if not all the senses of the person receiving the message. The requirement needed by the teacher to make effective teaching is resourcefulness. Aguekobuo, (2004) is of the view that, way to do this is for the teacher to engage in human capacity building which will involve the use of variety of strategies and techniques in his/her teaching. For these reasons business studies teachers need to be acquainted with all the audio-visual aids that will help optimally teaching and learning process. It has also been observed that the use of verbalization method of teaching business studies over the years has not made the subject very interesting. Agu and Hammad (2005), state that, the performance of students has been very low. In fact, the need for effective teaching and learning of the subject cannot be over emphasized. Agu, and Hammad, (2005) further observed that, teachers still use mainly traditional method of teaching which lead to poor students` understanding and performance of the subject. Abolade(2009) posits that business Studies like other subjects, can be effectively taught by employing various Audio-visual aids that appeal to three senses sight, touch and hearing. Among the numerous possible factors affecting teaching and learning in our schools are the poor teaching strategies. Abolode, (2009) further stated that study have shown that out of the five (5) sense organs we use for acquiring knowledge, visual materials which are learning and instructional materials that can be seen only taken up to 80% in the learning process, while Audio materials and equipment that appeal to our sense of hearing takes 11% and olfactory, tactile and tasting takes 9%. Therefore, it is stated that Audio-visual instructional materials have made qualitative and quantitative education more meaningful because they have produced desirable results. However, this subject does not seem to be receiving serious attention from all concerned, namely; students, teachers, sponsors of education and educational administrators/managers to mention but a few. These materials have value for instruction and present in different variants and qualities today. The uses of audiovisual materials have been discovered to facilitate effective communication transfer of information, knowledge skills, attitudes and other useful capabilities. Teachers should know that the resources for learning that instructor and students will use can influence the effectiveness of instructional programme. Audio visual materials could be said to be the various method, or devices used to disseminate information in the teaching and learning process, which the social studies teachers need to use to enhance the students better understanding of cultural, means of transportation system and conflict situations in Nigeria
Statement of the problem
As a result of advancement and development of modern technology varieties instructional materials can be used to make learning more vivid and effective. This means that students can perform better wherever they are taught with these instructional materials particularly audio-visual aids as their comprehension and demonstration and cooperation are expected to enhance tremendously in teaching-learning process. Unfortunately, most of the social studies teachers neglect the use of audio-visual aids in teaching the subject. Probably, due to non-availability of the materials or lack of techniques for using them. It is an against this background that this study is aimed at finding out effect of the use of audio-visual aids on student’s academic achievement in business studies in junior secondary schools in Ojo Local government area of Lagos state.
Objective of the study
The objectives of the study are;
- To find out the extent to which comprehension of students taught business studies using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process.
- To find out the extent to which cooperation of students taught business studies using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process.
- To find out the extent to which demonstrations of students taught social studies using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process.
HO: There is no significant difference between comprehension of students taught business studies using audio-visual aids and those taught using chalk and talk teaching process.
HI: There is significant difference between comprehension of students taught business studies using audio-visual aids and those taught using chalk and talk teaching process.
HO: There is no significant difference between cooperation of students taught business studies using audio-visual aids and those taught using chalk and talk teaching process
HI: There is significant difference between cooperation of students taught business studies using audio-visual aids and those taught using chalk and talk teaching process
Significance of the study
The study will invariably be of tremendous importance to students, teachers and researchers in business studies accordingly. The work will enable student’s to read and understand various audio-visual aids that facilitate teaching learning process, particularly video show. The Study will serve as reference to teachers who wish to find out the impact of audio-visual aids (video-show) on students’ academic achievement particularly in junior secondary schools. It will also highlight the appropriate materials of teaching business studies which will bring about student’s interest and active participation in the subject. The work will enable the teachers to understand that the success of any teaching learning activities is determined by how much the students are able to learn or gain from teaching. This can be achieved through the use appropriate audio-visual aids. The study will serve as a reference to researchers who wish to embark on further research on effects of audio-visual aids on students‟ academic achievement.
Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study covers The effect of audio visual aids on teaching and learning of business studies in junior secondary schools in Ojo Local government area of Lagos state. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
- c) Finance: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Definition of terms
Audio visual: using both sight and sound, typically in the form of images and recorded speech or music.
Teaching and learning is a process that includes many variables. These variables interact as learners work toward their goals and incorporate new knowledge, behaviours, and skills that add to their range of learning experiences.
Business Studies is an academic subject taught in schools and at university level in many countries. Its study combines elements of accountancy, finance, marketing, organizational studies and economics