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ABSTRACT

Engineers are often faced with the problem of constructing on black cotton soils, because of their unsuitable behaviour for construction.The preliminary investigation conducted on the natural black cotton soil collected fromDeba, Deba Local Government Area of Gombe State shows that it falls under A-7-6(16) AASHTO classification and CL according to Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). The soil was treated with bagasse ash (BA) in stepped concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 % by dry weight of soil. The effect of elapsed time after mixing on modified soil was studied with respect to specific gravity, particle size distribution, Atterberg limits, cation exchange capacity, compaction characteristics and shear strength parameters using three (3) compactive efforts namely, British Standard light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) and British Standard heavy (BSH). Test results of the black cotton soil – bagasse ash mixtures considered showed a decrease in the specific gravity and percentage of fines of the natural soil with increase in bagasse ash treatment it also showed adecrease in the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and plastic limit values with increase in bagasse ash treatment till an optimum mix of4 % BAand consequently increased with further increase in BA treatment.The liquid limit values increased with increase in bagasse ash treatment till an optimum mix of 4 % BAand consequently decreasedwith further increase in BA treatment.The plasticity indices of all the test samples were within the 30 % value prescribed for sub grade by the Nigeria General Specifications. Test results showed that values of maximum dry density (MDD)and cohesion decreased while optimum moisture content (OMC) and angle of internal friction increased with an increase in elapsed time after mixing for BSL, WAS and BSH compactions. Statistical analysis was carried out on results obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Microsoft Excel Analysis Tool Pak Software Package. An optimal 4 % BA treatment of black
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cotton soil when compacted with British Standard heavy energy is recommended for use as a sub-grade material of lightly trafficked roads and a maximum elapsed time of 2 hours after mixing should not be exceeded.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page
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Declaration
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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Certification
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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Dedication
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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Acknowledgements
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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Abstract
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Table of Contents
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List of Figures
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List of Tables
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CHAPTER ONE:- – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1
INTRODUCTION
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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1.1 Preamble
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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1.2 Statement of the Problem
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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1.3 Justification of the Study
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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1.4 Aim and Objectives
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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1.5 Scope of the Study
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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1.6 Significance of the Study
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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CHAPTER TWO:
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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LITERATURE REVIEW
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.1 General
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.2 Black Cotton Soil
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
8 2.2.1 Origin of black cotton soil
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.2.2 Problems associated with black cotton soil
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.2.3 Mineralogy and chemical composition of black cotton soil
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.3 Sugarcane Bagasse Ash
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.4 Modification
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.4.1 Types of modification
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.4.1.1 Mechanical modification
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.4.1.2 Chemical modification
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.5 Compaction Delay
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.6 Studies carried out using Bagasse Ash
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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2.7 Microanalysis of Specimens
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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CHAPTER THREE:
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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MATERIALS AND METHODS
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.1 Materials
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.1.1 Black cotton oil
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.1.2 Sugarcane bagasse ash
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.2 Preparation of Specimens
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3 Methods
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.1 Natural moisture content
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.2 Oxide composition of materials
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.3 Specific gravity
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.4 Sieve analysis
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.4.1 Wet sieving
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.4.2 Dry sieving
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.5 Atterberg limits
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.5.1 Liquid limit:
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.5.2 Plastic limit:
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.5.3 Plasticity index:
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.6 Linear shrinkage
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.7 Free swell
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.8 Cation exchange capacity
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.9 Compaction characteristics
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.9.1 Maximum dry density:
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.9.2 Optimum moisture content
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.3.10 Shear strength
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.4 Microanalysis
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.5 Statistical Analysis
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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3.5.1 One – way analysis of variance
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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CHAPTER FOUR
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.1 Properties 0f Materials Used in the Study
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.1.1 Natural soil
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.1.2 Oxide composition of black cotton soil and bagasse ash
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2 Effect of Modification on Black Cotton Soil at no delay after mixing
– – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.1 Specific gravity
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.2 Cation exchange capacity
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.3 Free swell index
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.4 Particle size distribution
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.4.1 Wet sieving
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.4.2 Dry sieving
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.5 Atterberg limits
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.5.1 Liquid limit
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.5.2 Plastic limit
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
45
4.2.5.3 Plasticity index
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
46
4.2.5.4 Linear shrinkage
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.6 Compaction characteristics
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.6.1 Maximum dry density
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
47
4.2.6.2 Optimum moisture content
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.7 Shear strength parameters’
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.2.7.1 Cohesion
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
51
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4.2.7.2 Angle of internal friction
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3 Effect of Elapsed Time After Mixing on modified black cotton soil
– – – – – – – – –
54
4.3.1 Particle size distribution (dry sievimg)
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
54
4.3.1.1 Up to 3 hours delay for British Standard light compaction
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
54
4.3.1.2 Up to 3 hours delay for West African Standard compaction
– – – – – – – – – – – – – –
58
4.3.1.3 Up to 3 hours delay for British Standard heavy compaction
– – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.2 Atterberg limits
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
65
4.3.2.1 Liquid limit
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
65
4.3.2.2 Plastic limit
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
67
4.3.2.3 Plasticity index
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.3 Compaction characteristics
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.3.1 Maximum dry density
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.3.2 Optimum moisture content
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.4 Shear strength parameters
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.4.1Cohesion
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.4.2 Angle of internal friction
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.5 Microanalysis of specimens
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.5.1 Micrographs of natural and optimally treated specimens
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.5.2Fiber metric analysis
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.5.2.1 Fiber metric histogram
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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4.3.5.2.1 Pore histogram
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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CHAPTER FIVE
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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5.1 SUMMARY
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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5.2 Conclusion
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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5.3 Recommendation
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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REFERENCES
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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APPENDIX
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
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Project Topics

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Preamble
Soilsare used as load bearing materials for construction. When used for this purpose, soilshould possesengineering properties to meet requirements such as highstrength and low settlement (Vincy and Muttharam, 2009). In many situations, the soil present in the field may be a problematic one such asexpansive soils. Black cotton soil is an example of an expansive soil. Black cotton soils are known as vertisols, Chernozens, Gilgais; self mulching soils; self swallowing soils; black cracking clays; Vleis; Wadi soils (Greenfield. 2004). Warren and Kirby (2004) referred to expansive soils as “swelling soils”, “heaving soils” and “volume change” soils. Black cotton soils occur principally in hot environments, in the semi arid tropics with marked alternating wet and dry seasons, they are generally found on sedimentary plains as the result of thousands of years of erosion of the clay content out of the surrounding hills. They can also be found on level land and in depressions. Black cotton soil swells and shrinks with changes in moisture content. The reason for this behavior is the presence of certain type of mineral known as monmorillonitewhich has an expanding lattice (Hussein, 2001).
Black cotton soils cover an estimated 340million hectare, or about 3% of the world’s cultivatable soils (Greenfield. 2004). They are found in India, Australia, South Western U.S.A (Tomlinson. 1999), South Africa and Israel (Ola, 1978). They are also found in the northeastern parts of Nigeria, Cameroon, Lake Chad basin, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Zimbabwe and other Eastern African countries. Black cotton soils in Nigeria occupy an estimated area of 104,000km2 in the north eastern part of the country (Osinubi et al., 2011).
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Engineers are often faced with the problem of constructing on black cotton soils, because of their unsuitable behaviour for construction.The characteristic swelling and shrinkage of black cotton soils causes damage to many loaded structures. Therefore, at times it is necessary to modify or stabilize these soils to provide a stable sub grade or a working platform for the construction of buildings and pavements (Design Procedures, 2013).Sugar cane is a major commercially grown agricultural crop in the vast majority of countries in Africa. Sugar cane is a major raw material for sugar production; it is grown on 25-30,000 hectare; with a production rate of 80 tons/hectare in Nigeria (Misari et al. 1998).Bagase is the cellulose fiber remaining after extraction of sugar – bearing juice from sugar cane.Bagasse has come to be regarded as a fuel rather than refuse in the sugar mills (Paya, et al., 2007). Biomass is an important source of energy in tropical countries like Thailand (Ojha et al., 2004).Burning bagasse as an energy source yields its ash, considered as a waste causing disposal problems (Kuprianovaetal.,2006).Bagasse ash possesses pozzolanic substances in the form of oxides of silica, alumina and iron therefore they can be used to modify black cotton soils.
Modification is a process of altering the engineering properties of soils such as hydraulic conductivity, workability, swelling potential and volume change tendencies.The term modification is used only when the sole aim of the process is to make the soil workable and the long term effects are not taken into account (Daita et al., 2005).The benefits of soil modification include reduction in, plasticity moisture-holding capacity (drying), and swell, improved stability, and the ability to construct a solid working platform. These benefits expedite construction and save time and money (Design Procedures, 2013).
Construction specification commonly requires that compaction and final shaping should be carried out as soon as possible after mixing/placing is completed, but usually this is not the
3
case. Sometimes, there is a delay between mixing/placing and compaction because of some unforeseen circumstances like machine breakdown, injury to workers in the field, among others, (Okonkwo, 2009). Elapsed time or delay time is the interval between mixing and compaction of the soil with the modifier so as to produce desired and workable properties of the problem soil (Trindade, 2005).
1.1 Statement of the Problem
Nowadays, it is commonplace to reutilize sugar cane bagasseas a biomass fuel in boilers for vapor and power generation insugar factories. (Kulkarmi et al 2013). The major problem in every sugar industry is how to dispose effectively the bagasse ash generated. Bagasse ash possesses pozzolanic properties therefore it can be used as a replacement of the conventional lime and cement used during modification processes of problematic soils and to help dispose wastes in sugarcane industries.
An improvement in the frictional characteristics, durability properties and a reduction in plasticity characteristics of expansive soils can be achieved by modification. During modification, construction specification commonly requires thatcompaction and final shaping should be carried out as soon as possible after mixing/placing is completed but usually this is not the case as a result ofdelay between mixing/placing and compaction because of some unforeseen circumstances such as;machine breakdown, injury of workers on the field, Sudden raining, insufficient workers, etc.Effects of elapsed time have been investigated for conventional stabilizers such as cement and lime. Research on bagasse ash black cotton soil mixtures focused on strength development and no attention was given to elapsed time which may occur due to unforeseen circumstances highlighted above. The compaction delays on mixing of black cotton
4
soil with modifiers have effect on the strength properties and density of the soil that is to be developed after compaction. Therefore there is need to investigate these properties experimentallyfor up to 1–3hours elapsed time after mixing to define the minimum values that can be achieved in the field.
1.2 Justification for the Study
The presence of swelling clay minerals mainly montmorillonite in black cotton soils, makes it to expand and contract as a result of wetting and drying. This contraction leads to the formation of wide and deep cracks. Though special designs may be implemented at higher cost on structures and pavements which are directly constructed on this soil, without proper modification and stabilization processes, they eventually get damaged.
Numerous methods are known and used in the modification/stabilization of black cotton soil but each method is based on how economical and if it would help achieve the desired soil properties. Chemical modifiers and stabilizers are commonly used to improve the performance of high plasticity soils, soils with high volumetric changes, poor workability, and low strength. Lime, cement and fly ash or their combinations are typically used for this purpose.
Sometimes, delay time after mixing is unavoidable one due to the followings reasons; sudden raining, delaying of compaction equipments after mixing, insufficient workers, poor transportations etc. these makes the modification process a delayed one. This delayed time might affect the workability of modified soils. In addition it could lead to hydration reaction of the modifier with soil, evaporation of mixed water. Therefore, while planning for the modification of soils with bagasse ash, the aspect of loss of workability in the likely transit time involved must be taken into account.
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1.3 Aim and Objectives
This study is aimed at the evaluation of the effect of elapsed time after mixing on the properties of bagasse ash modified black cotton soil.
The following were the objectivesthat were to be achieved:
1. Determination of the index properties of the natural and modified black cotton soils.
2. Evaluation of cation exchange capacity of black cotton soil – bagasse ash mixtures.
3. Determination of the moisture-density relationships of up to 3 hours compaction delay for different compactive efforts (British Standard light, BSL, West African Standard, WASand British Standard heavy, BSH)
4. Determination of shear strength parameters of natural and treated soil with compaction delays.
5. Microanalysis of the optimal blackcotton soil-bagasse ash mixture using scanning electron microscope.
6. Determination of the permissible elapsed time after mixing for thebagasse ash modifiedblack cotton soil.
1.4 Scope of the Study
The study involves the determination of the properties of black cotton soil modified with up to 8 % bagasse ash content for1, 2, and 3 hours delays after mixing using three compaction energies (British Standard light, BSL, West African Standard, WAS and British Standardheavy, BSH).
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1.5 Significance of the Study
Delay after mixing is unavoidable due to foreseen and unforeseen circumstances therefore this research work would determinethe allowable maximum elapsed time after mixing bagasse ash with black cotton soil beyond which undesirable results/properties would be obtained.

 

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