1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
This study is on the effect of vandalization on socio economy development a case study of Kwara state. The total population for the study is 200 staffs of selected local government in Kwara state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made directors, administrative staff, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
- Background of the study
The Nigeria as an independent nation was characterized by good governance and the principle of sustainable management of human and material resources in the 60’s and 70’s, which made up governed to experience. Situation of improved social and economic condition which eras attributed to the affordable cost of energy products such as petroleum and electricity. However, in the energy 80’s and aptill date the services of government that has piloted the affairs of this great nation (Nigeria) even those that has failed to realize that energy products such as petroleum and electricity products are the mainstay the entire citizenry of the country this is evident in the level of mal-administration which ahs been recorded in the energy sector in recent times thereby making the cost of these products to be above the reach of the and users.
Nigeria is the largest oil producer in Africa and the eleventh largest producer in the World, the main stay of Nigeria economy is the petroleum sector. The Niger Delta region has an area of over twenty-eight thousand square kilometers, the Niger Delta area has as part of its features, and meandering waterways. A large part of the area consists of salt water swamp parts of the fresh water further inland have limited agricultural possibilities, the region derived the name (Niger Delta) from being situated at the mouth of the River, Niger, which could be traced back to early 15th century. Comprising the people of the region are the Ijaws (who form the largest ethnic group in the areas, the Itsekiri, Urohobos, Efiks, Ibibios and other smaller ethnic groups. Before the creation of the Nigerian state, economic activities of the Niger Delta in pre-colonial days entailed mainly export of salt and fish to its hinterlands. In the 18th century, when slave trade was at its peak, the region was West Africa’s largest slave exporting area, and this was enhanced by its nearness to the sea. Slave dealers, however, diverted the palm oil trade in the 19th century when slave trade declined. The colonial era gave birth to Nigeria, with the Niger Delta situated at the Southern-Eastern part of the country. As at 1975, three states were under the region namely Rivers, Bendel, and Cross River states, with two Igbo states, Anambra and Imo as the hinterland following the creation of more states and a redefinition of the areas to be included in the Niger Delta states were Abia, AkwaIbom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Imo, Ondo and Rivers state.the critical issue of oil pipelines vandalism and its effects on the socioeconomic development in Nigerian society. Nigeria discovered crude oil deposit in large quantity in the Niger Delta region in 1956. By 1958, Shell D‟Arcy had discovered crude oil in twelve areas in the region of which Oloibiri, Afam and Bonu were the most promising. Oil production started in Oloibiri in early 1958 with 3, 000 barrels per day (Ekpu, 2009). Since then, enormous deposits of crude petroleum oil have been found on-shore and off-shore in many parts of the Niger Delta region and father eastwards towards Ohaji and Egbema axis. By 1997, Nigeria’s proven oil reserve was put as 13.5 billion barrels. However, the estimated recoverable oil was put at 22.5 billion barrels of oil in the region from a total of 164 blocks (Inyang, 2004). In 2015, however, Nigeria was ranked as the 10th largest oil producer in the world with proven oil reserve of about 36 billion barrels, and gas reserve of about 185 Trillion Cubit Feet (TCF), among others (Johnson, 2015). It should be noted that crude petroleum oil has been discovered further inland along Anambra River plain and its production had commenced under Orient Petroleum. This has made Anambra state to join the coveted league of oil producing states in the country. In February 2016, Nigeria was reported to have devised a strategy to maintain crude oil production at 2.2 million barrels per day. The 2016 Federal budget was said to have been pegged at this level of crude oil production. Thus, the Minister of State for Petroleum Resources and Group Managing Director, Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation, NNPC, Dr. IbeKachikwu was reported to have affirmed that the county‟s oil production would be 2.2mbpd for the month of February 2016. He was reported to have further stated that the country would keep striving to increase crude oil production to meet local demand and not necessarily to sell it in international market. He reportedly noted that Nigeria has considerable local demand for refined petroleum products and, as such, the demand for the four domestic refineries was at least 500, 000 barrels of crude oil per day (See Okoromadu, 2016). Furthermore, the masses been avenue of the ugly tend and also considering the abundance which the nation enjoys in this sector decided it embark on vandalization as the solution to their energy problem. Basically our focus this research work is Kwara state.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The present research work provides the following problems. First the problems of bad government or administration that couldn’t manage the energy sector properly. Secondly the problems of vandals who are not aware of the hazards that are associated with vandalization. Thirdly the problems of illicitly high cost of energy products. Also the research work presents the problems of testable economy due to vandalization Finally the problem of reduced gross domestic products GDP, due to loss of greater percentage the national income to the incidence of vandalization.
- OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are;
- To find out dangers that are associated with vandalization
- To ascertain the relationship that exists between vandalization and socio-economic development of a nation.
- To find out the huge amount that is lost annually to vandalization
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The researcher intends to test the following under listed hypotheses:
Ho: there are no dangers that are associated with vandalization
Hi: there are dangers that are associated with vandalization .
Ho: there is no relationship that exists between vandalization and socio-economic development of a nation.
Hi: there is relationship that exists between vandalization and socio-economic development of a nation
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The present research work has the following significance:
- It will help to reduce cases of vandalization
- It will help the country to experience accelerated socio economic development
iii. It has significance of exposing the risks associated with vandalization, especially possibility of loss of life
- The research encourages improved public and private partnership to reduce vandalization
- Finally to promote GDP growth for sustainable economic
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers The effect of vandalization on socio economy development a case study of kwara state. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
Finance: This project work involves huge financial expenses such as photocopy, typing and movement from one point to another to gather information. The financial problems not only hindered movement but also discourse one’s enthusiasm in learning.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
During the course of the research work the following terms were identified and defined appropriately energy vandals vandalization socio economic development mal-administration government policy partnership sector private sector etc.
- Energy:This is the driven force that is generated by the consumption or utilization of electricity and petroleum products
- Vandals:These are the individuals that embarks on vandalization of energy installation
iii. Vandalization: This is the process of destroying our energy installations, which brings about scarcity of the energy products.
iv. Socio economic: This is the combination of social and economic activities to attain sustainable national growth
- Development:This is the meaningful and sustainable progress that is experienced by country
- Mal-administration:This is the situation of improper management of the resources of the nation
vii. Government: This is the machinery that is established to manage the affairs of a nation
viii. Policy: This is the decision that is taken by the government in the execution of their plans
- Partnership:This is the relationship between the public and private sector which yields dividend
- Public sector:This is the aspect of the nations economy that is managed by the government.
- Private sector: This is the aspect of the economy that is controlled by private individuals