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Download this complete Project material titled; The Effects Of The Socratic Method On Students Art Performances In Secondary Schools In Kaduna- Nigeria with abstract, chapters 1-5, references, and questionnaire. Preview Abstract or chapter one below

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ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the effects of Socratic Method on student‘s art performance in secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis Nigeria. The specific objectives are to find out students performance when exposed to Socratic Method, determine if male students will perform better than female students when exposed to the Socratic Method, and determine if Socratic Method would have any effect on students performance in fine arts in both private and public schools. The study was a quasi-experimental design where pre-test and post-test control and experimental group was used. Forty (40) fine arts students (boys and girls) from four selected secondary schools were involved in the study. Simple random sampling was used to select the students. The instrument used for the study was a self-designed Art Appreciation Test (AAT) consisted of twenty (20) multiple choice items which was administered personally by the researcher for the collection of data. Obtained data was analyzed in frequency and percentage. The major findings obtained revealed that students perform better in fine art when taught using Socratic Method as compared to the conventional method. Female students are better in fine art performance when taught using Socratic Method. Private schools perform better than public schools when taught using Socratic Method. Based on the findings from the study, it was concluded that Students perform better in art when taught using Socratic Method as compared to conventional method. It was recommended that the teaching of art would be highly effective if art teachers start to use innovative teaching techniques such as Socratic Method to enhance the cognitive performance of art students.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page……………………………………………………………………i
Declaration………………………………………………………………….ii
Certification…………………………………………………………………iii
Dedication…………………………………………………………………..iv
Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………v
Abstract……………………………………………………………………..vi
Table of Content……………………………………………………………vii
List of Tables …………………………………………………………….. xi
List of Appendixes…………………………………………………………xii
Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………xiii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………….1
1.1 Background of the Study………………………………………………..1
1.2 Statement of the Study…………………………………………………..3
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study……………………………………….4
1.4 Research Questions……………………………………………………..4
1.5 Justification of the Study………………………………………………..5
1.6 Significance of the Study………………………………………………..5
1.7 Basic Assumptions………………………………………………………5
1.8 Scope and Limitation of the Study……………………………………..6
1.9 Organization of the Study………………………………………………6

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………..7
2.1 Conceptual framework…………………………………………………..7
2.2 Fostering Critical Thinking in Socratic Method…………………………9
2.3 The use of Socratic Method……………………………………………..10
2.3.1Socratic Instruction…………………………………………….11
2.3.2 Socratic Discussion……………………………………………12
2.4 Concept of Brain Storming (Osborn)……………………………………13
2.5 Discussion method……………………………………………………….17
2.6 The Importance of Fine Arts in Classroom……………………………..21
2.7Art Appreciation…………………………………………………………..22
2.8 The Subject Area of Fine Arts……………………………………………23
2.9 Attitude towards Art by Teachers and Students…………………………26
2.10 Strategies of Teaching Fine Arts………………………………………..28
2.11 Conventional Teaching Method in Arts………..………………………30
2.12 Previous Related Studies (Empirical)…………………………………..31
2.13 Summary………………………………………………………………..33
viii
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………..36
3.1 Research Design………………………………………………………….36
3.2 Population…………………………………………………………………36
3.3 Sample and Sample Procedure……………………………………………36
3.4 Instrumentation…………………………………………………………….37
3.5 Pilot Test……………………………………………………………………38
3.6 Data Collection Procedure …………………………………………………38.
3.7 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………….39
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PERESNTATION, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………40
4.1 Data Analysis of Research Question One……………………………………51
4.2 Data Analysis of Research Question Two…………………………………..52
4.3 Data Analysis of Research Question Three………………………………….53
4.4 Discussion of the Major Findings…………………………………………….54
ix
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………….56
5.1 Summary………………………………………………………………………56
5.2 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….57
5.3 Recommendations…………………………………………………………….57
References………………………………………………………………………..56

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction
1.0 Background of the Study
The National Policy on Education (NPE, 2007) presents the visual arts as a core subjects at the junior secondary school level, but made it optional to student at the senior secondary school level. The Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria realizes the importance of art and culture in the development of science and technology and gives visual art education its legitimate right in the nation‘s educational system. The visual arts curriculum is an integration of visual arts, drama and music and is primarily concerned with the role of arts and culture in education at present and future. At the junior secondary school level it is called Cultural and Creative Arts. It is made up of drawing, painting, pattern and design, 3-dimentional works, crafts and art appreciation.
Arts subjects constitute a major part of the subjects being offered in most post-primary institutions in Nigeria today. These subjects are so important that the Federal Government National Policy on Education states in specific terms that the Secondary education shall provide trained manpower in the arts, sciences and technology. The National Policy on Education further states that art is core at junior secondary school and elective at senior secondary schools. The importance attached to art by the Federal Government could be due to the general belief that art is capable of improving and changing skills, attitudes and cognition by increasing student‘s store of knowledge‘s about themselves, their environment and their world.
Methodology is very vital in any teaching-learning situation. The method adopted by the teacher may promote or hinder learning. It may sharpen mental activities which are the bases of social power or may discourage initiatives and curiosity thus making self-reliance and survival
difficult. There are different types of methods for effective teaching. Visual arts are taught through different teaching methods such as laissez faire, demonstration, project, story-telling, and assignment among others. Teaching is an art of assisting students to learn. All good teaching should therefore be characterized by proper teaching methods. Laissez faire and storytelling has been the most common methods used in the teaching of creative arts at the junior secondary schools but Socratic Method could be the most effective in the teaching visual arts. Correct use of an appropriate teaching method is critical to successful teaching and learning art.
The Socratic Method is teaching by questions whereby answers and discussions are used to elicit the expected learning. Here the teacher leads and guides the students to express their opinions and ideas with the view to find answers to problems collectively. Eisner (2002) explained that the discussion method works on the principle that the knowledge and ideas of several people are more likely to find solutions or answers to specified problems or topics. This is in line with the saying that ―Two good heads are better than one‖. Discussion method of teaching engages both the teachers and students in thinking. It also develops in students social skills of talking and listening.
However, it is the teacher who selects the strategy according to the needs of the students. Mamza (2008) opines that the best scheme of education becomes a bad scheme if the teachers handling it are bad: even so a bad scheme can, in practice, be made a good one, if the teachers are good. Teaching method are patterns of teacher behavior that occur either simultaneously or in sequence in a verified way. Choosing specific teaching methods that best achieves course objectives is one of the most important decisions a teacher faces. Knowing what methods are available and what objectives each method is best suited for, help teachers make this decision more easily.
Socratic Method may take a variety of forms such as small group, round table, panel discussion, opposing panel and debate (Adeyeyi, 2003). Some of the advantages of the method is that it allows for sharing of ideas by students, development of social skills of taking and listening, clarification of ideas and promotion of team work. This study was an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of discussion method in the subject of creative arts in secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis. The study was experimental and a pretest/posttest control group design was used.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Student‘s persistent poor performance has been partly ascribed to inadequate teaching and instructional methods adopted by art teachers ( Mamza, 2008). Mbahi. ( 2001) in supporting this view reported the seriousness of the deplorable performance of secondary school students in art subjects and identified persistent use of conventional mode of instruction as one of the major short-coming affecting the learning in art subjects.
The traditional teaching techniques of laissez faire and others have not improved the performance of students in arts, so there are reasons to look for innovative instructional methods by secondary school art teachers, visual arts lessons are still characterized by the conventional laissez faire, demonstration, project, story, assignment, among others. Discussion is used as part of classroom procedures, but lessons are not based on discussions. It will be worthwhile to find out the effect of Socratic Method on students performance in art. The technique will be based on Socratic Method of Teaching by questions and answers to elicit the expected learning outcomes from students and follow with discussion.
The problem of effective teaching and learning of art in Nigerian Secondary Schools has become a sensitive issue that needs urgent attention. It has been observed that the issue is
affecting the performance of students in both internal and external exanimations adversely. It has also been discovered that the poor academic performance of students is related to the conventional laissez faire, demonstration among others used to teach art by teachers.
In view of the foregoing, this study examines the effect of Socratic Method on student art performance in secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis. Since the orthodox techniques seems not to yield results as expected on students performance. It is appropriate to try other techniques for better results.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to determine if Socratic Method can be considered as a better technique for art learning. The specific objectives are to:
1). find out students performance when exposed to Socratic Method.
2). determine if male students will perform better than female students when exposed to the Socratic Method.
3). determine if Socratic discussion method would have any effect on student‘s performance in fine arts in both private schools and public schools
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were generated for the study:
1). What is the students‘ performance in arts before and after exposure to the Socratic method?
2).Will there be gender effect on fine art students performance when exposed to the Socratic method?
3). Will student‘s performance in art improve when exposed to Socratic discussion method in private and public secondary school?
1.5 Justification of the Study
The teaching of art in secondary schools has for long been dominated with the conventional methods such as lecture, laissez faire and others and the exams results of students at the end of the year has been very poor (Mamza,2008 and Mbahi, 2001). This may be attributed to the poor methods of teaching art by art teachers. This research is justified by looking for an alternative method of teaching art in secondary school that could improve the performance of the students in art.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of benefit to the art teachers, students and the curriculum planners. The findings will help the students who have lost hope in doing well in fine arts that all hope is not lost as they can still understand the subject by improvement in teaching methods used by their teachers. The teachers will benefit since the study will help them to understand the appropriate methods of teaching to be employed in carrying out their duties. The curriculum planners will get used information that will enable them improve in their planning of art curriculum.
The overall significance is that it will provide a teaching/learning strategy that teachers of fine arts could adopt so that students in their classes will benefit maximally, thereby meeting the needs of individual students in the class.
1.7 Basic assumptions
It is assumed in this study that:
1) The schools used for the study were representative of secondary schools in the Kaduna Metropolis.
2) The Socratic Method of teaching are appropriate for teaching the topic selected.
3) The selected topic is appropriate for the class (SSII) used in the study as it is stated in the scheme of work.
1.8 Scope of the study
The study covers the upper level classes (SS1I) of the selected secondary schools offering creative arts in Kaduna Metropolis (Kaduna North and Kaduna South local Government Areas). The Senior Secondary School (SSS1I) students have a better command of language (the weapon for discussion) in both private and public schools.
1.9 Organization of the Study
The study was organized in five chapters: the first chapter contained the introduction, background of the study, stamen of the problem, aims and objectives of the study, research questions, justification of the study, significance of the study, basic assumption, scope and limitation of the study and the definition of terms. The second chapter contained: the review of related literature form journals, magazines, and thesis, and newspaper articles, primary and secondary sources. Third chapter consisted of the research methodology: the research design, population, sample, instrumentation, pilot study, data collection and data analysis. Chapter four consisted of the discussion of the data analysis. Chapter five is the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

 

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