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CHAPTER ONE

2.0     INTRODUCTION

The term poultry used in agriculture generally refers to all domesticated birds kept for egg or meat production.  These includes chickens (domestic fowls),  Grallus domestics, turkeys, ducks and geese.  This project will deal largely with the chicken which are the most common domestic fowl.  The species of poultry are habitable or can survive in different environments therefore, they are widely distributed in the world, with great increase in population, the demand for goods especially protein food become acute.  To meet the demand for animal protein and its development, rapid multiplying ones becomes very necessary. Poultry has so  many advantages over other domesticated animal whose production is very much hindered by lack of money, high temperature, disease and lack of good at certain periods of the year.

The diseases of poultry is like the disease of other animals may be caused by: a. pathogenic organisms like bacteria and viruses, protozoa, worms and some members of arthropods

b.                 Nutritional deficiency, (c) From wound or cannibalism

The following diseases are usually associated with the fowls locally

1.                 New castle disease

2.                 Chronic respiratory diseases

3.                 Fowl typhoid

4.                 Coccidiosis

5.                 Fowl pox

The incidence of salmonella and Escherida coli simply means the extent to which the enteric organisms (Escherichia coli) that are part of the normal flora and incidentally causes disease and pathogenic organism (salmonella) affect the poultry feeds.  Hill, D.H; and Davis, O.s; (1962).  Shoening et al 1942). Defined diseases as any abnormal condition of the tissue of the body, the cells that make up the various tissue have specific functions to perform. Pekzar et al (1977) defined Salmonell is as a disease of the chick fowl and swim bird cause by some species or Salnaonells.

Anon (1963) described pullorum disease as an acute infection disease of body chicks caused by salnonella pullorum. Infection is the entering of the disease produces organisms into the animal.

Livestock (Poultry )gets infected when pathogenic  organisms passes to the susceptible animal through the  through the   following  avenues. Esmat.omar 1977.

1.                 Feeds and contaminated water feed or water containing droppings or waste products of diseased animal will help spread the organisms to fresh hosts. The feeding troughs and watering vessels also spread the diseases if not separated.

2.                 Dropping or excretes: These material are the gateway out for some stages of oarganisms to go out of the host and get to fresh animal hosts.

3.                 Close contact – some disease spread by contact.  Their agents may be external parasites or air borne in which case nearness to the superior’s birds increase the changes of getting the organisms

4.                 To or event the disease pathogenic organism from getting into the body of poultry, attention should be payed to those factors that influence their infections and spread.  First and foremost, they should have disease resisting stock, provide good shelter, clean range, proper  feeding and practise separating the unhealthy ones from the healthy poultry, quarantining new stock.  In case of poultry, the brooder house should be 30m to 48m from old birds. Such that they gets good feed and sunlight.  They should act be allowed to get in contact with their droppings or excretes since their dropping carry the pathogenic organisms.  Sanitation is very important in poultry management by cleaning of water cans and feed troughs and finally disinfecting the stock to help reduce organic matter.

1.1     JUSTIFICATION

This study has been justified by the need and safety of consuming children (white meat) which has low cholesterol but rich in protein than beef which has high cholesterol.  Also human beings and the world at large, benefit from our poultry farms where we have the layers (Egg producing Chiks) and the broilers (Heavy chicks) for consumption.

The poultry (chicken) are rich in protein and amino acid needed for growth. Livestock feeds are formulated to a ratio for different species and classes of poultry. These are also feed additive, which may be added to the feed to prevent disease or make animals utilize feed better.  Some ingredient concentrate is added to nourish the feed.

1.3AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1.       To highlight the various importance of the livestock (poultry) to human and our industries.

2.          To determine the incidence of bacteria infection such as balmonella

and Escherichia coli which cause health hazard to the poultry    (Chiken).

3.         To isolate and deduce effect of salmonella specie and Escherichia coli

in livestock (poultry) and their feeds.

4.          To advice poultry farmers on how to preserve and handle their farms

feeds from infections diseases to the birds.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

This research work will be limited to the available materials for carrying out experimental work and also due to cost of transportation. This work will be limited to Enugu metropolis.

HYPOTHESIS

HYP. 10:- Salmonella and Escherichia coli are the major causes of bacteira infection found in livestock (poultry) feeds.

HYP. II: – salmonella only is the infection that effects the livestock (poultry) feeds.

HYP. II0:- Escherichia coli only is the bacteria infection that effects the livestock (poultry) feeds.)

STATEMNET OF PROBLEM

1.                 Poultry feeds are infected during procession by handling, mixing of ingredient and exposing the raw materials and furnished products to the atmospheric micro organism.

2.                 Poultry (birds) are being infected through the consumption of the contaminated feeds and unpurified water

3.                 Also when the healthy and unhealthy birds are fed together from the some feeding trough and water vessels, eventually the pathogenic and the enteric organisms from infested ones may widely spread

4.                 Salmonella and Escherichia coli as the bacterial organisms effects the essential requirement of the body such as water, carbohydrate, fats, vitamin, minerals and protein thereby reducing the content of the nutrient needed for the food to the palatable and easily digestible

5.                 Consumers (humans) get infected by the in take of uncooked and half done chicken

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