This study was designed to investigate the role of entrepreneurship education on graduate manpower development in Lagos State. The specific purposes of the study were to identify the types of entrepreneurship education programmes for graduate manpower development in Lagos state; determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhance production potentials of graduates in Lagos state; determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhance skill acquisition among graduates in Lagos state; determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhance marketing potentials of graduates in Lagos State; ascertain the factors militating against the entrepreneurial education programme for graduate manpower development in Lagos state; and examine the strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education programme for graduate manpower development in Lagos State. The study was guided by 6 research questions and two null hypotheses. The design of the study was a descriptive survey design. Simple random sampling technique was used in drawing the sample composition of the study. The population of this study comprised eight thousand seven hundred and ninety (8,790) male and female members of one hundred and fifteen (115) registered youth Organizations in Lagos state. The sample consisted of 899 members of registered youths organizations in Lagos State. The data collected from the six research questions were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviation, while t-test analysis was used to test the two null-hypotheses formulated for the study. The findings revealed that the outcome of technological activities can improve individuals and nations economically and otherwise, education equips graduates with manufacturing skills, entrepreneurship education enhances functional skill acquisition among the graduates. Training on marketing skills place to ensure that graduates gain increased awareness and understanding of financial products and services.
Background of the Study
Entrepreneurship education is a programme or part of a programme that prepares individuals to undertake the formation and/or operation of small business enterprises which also includes franchise operations for the purpose of performing all business functions relating to a product or service with emphasis on social responsibilities, legal requirements and risks for the sake of profit involved in the conduct of private business enterprises. Entrepreneurship education entails a philosophy of self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive environment, promoting new sets of attitudes and culture for the attainment of future challenges (Arogundade, 2011). It involves combination of various resources to increase value and introduce change and innovation into the production process for creating wealth and employment opportunities. Acoording to Osuala (2010), entrepreneurship education could turn around the economic fortune of any society by providing jobs and reducing the unemployment rate in such society. Entrepreneurship could aid people in identifying investment opportunities and also help them to harness untapped natural resources in the environment in order to produce the goods and services needed in the country. These will no doubt reduce or eliminate poverty and help to increase per capita income in the country which is one of the cardinal points of the entrepreneurship ventures.
Entrepreneurship education seeks to prepare people (particularly the youths), to be responsible enterprising individuals who become entrepreneurs or entrepreneurial thinkers by immersing them in real life learning experience thereby taking risks, manage results and learn from the outcome of the entrepreneurial activities (Suleiman, 2010). Through entrepreneurship education, people come to know that they can either take or create jobs which make them to be self-employed. Entrepreneurship education could be given to interested graduates in Lagos State through workshops, classes, and conferences thereby learning basic ideas of starting their own entrepreneurship businesses and keeping it running.
More so, Ezeilo (2005) in her view, believe that entrepreneurship education equips individuals particularly youths in selecting suitable job positions, and occupations; as well as upgrading skills for those who are already employed in selected occupations. She further commented that re-training programmes suppose to be designed to prepare youths for gainful employment as skilled workers in agriculture, home economics, trade, and industrial occupation .In support of his opinion , Ubah (2013) emphasize that it is through entrepreneurship education that most rural and urban youths are sensitized and made aware of income generating activities such as; poultry management, mechanized farming, cassava processing,, soap making, basket weaving, and among others. Thus, Agboeze (2012) also emphasize that there are many entrepreneurship education programmes where graduates are empowered. For instance, there are sociological and technological entrepreneurship education programmes, and more specifically, agricultural/agro-allied activities where there are foodstuffs, restaurants, fast food vending etc. In the area of solid minerals, there are quarrying, polishing and crushing engineering. In power and transport, there are power generations, Haulage business (cargo and passengers). In the area of information and telecommunication business, there are manufacturing and repairs of GSM accessories and the printing and selling of Recharge cards. In hospitality and tourism business, there are hotels, accommodation, film and home video production; in oil and gas business, there are construction and maintenance of pipelines, drilling, refining bye products.
Mobile technology as part of entrepreneurship education, its introduction and usage are used prolifically in the world today. The innovation has impacted positively on the lives of graduates more than any other technology. The usage has presented opportunities with different dimensions to all groups of individuals and businesses. Mobile commerce (M-commerce) means all forms of interface between a consumer and a mobile device (Alex 2010), these may also include but not limited to the issuance of electronic coupons and shopping over the internet through a mobile device. Mobile financial services therefore fall under this umbrella such as mobile personal banking and payments.
The construction industry as an aspect of entrepreneurship education in Lagos State has witnessed an overwhelming upsurge in construction contracting dominated by expatriate companies with few indigenous companies (Idoro, 2009). Unfortunately, the period also exposed the country’s indigenous companies to low level of human resources development required for; planning, designing, constructing and maintaining the magnitude (in size and number) of projects conceived by the government. In the area of environmental and waste management business, there is refuse collection/disposal, recycling and drainage/sewage construction job. In the area of financial banking services, there is banking, insurance and stock trading. In engineering and fabrication work, there are machines and tools fabrications. There is also the building and construction, where there are plan and design services for wealth creation among graduates. These entrepreneurship activities are aimed at making people, to become independent in entrepreneurship activities for economic empowerment and Lagos state which is the focus of this study is not left out. Lagos state has sterling qualities such as; resourcefulness, initiative, drive, imagination, enthusiasm, zest, dash, ambition, energy, boldness, audacity and courage, which are all valuable traits for entrepreneurship development. Supporting this assertion, bennell (2000) maintained that, governments, NGOs and international bodies seeking to improve the livelihood of the youths, could best pursue their empowerment objective by tapping into the innate resources of graduates, and build on their strong spirit of risk taking through entrepreneurship education which may in turn lead to economic empowerment.
Economic empowerment according to Ogbe (2006) is a way of motivating individuals in the society to be productive and self dependent by inculcating into the individual’s entrepreneurship skills such as personal business initiatives and basic skills in business development. In fact, the best foundation for any business success is to have several possibilities for creating profits. However, profit creation is determined by the choice of the business, self concept, interest, resources, and aspirations which in turn would enable the person to achieve self-development, self-actualization and self fulfillment. Production empowerment according to Idachaba (2006) is the basic focus of entrepreneurship initiatives. It is determined by what the person trained wants to produce, how to produce and whom to produce the goods for. Personal trait and initiative will instinct in the person on what to produce, which depends on the resources available. How to produce the goods depends on the factors of production available to him. Finally to whom such goods are produced for depends on market. Knowledge of the factors of production which determines how the goods are to be produced and to whom they are to be produced can be imbibed mostly through entrepreneurship training and marketing strategies.
In Nigeria and the world over, entrepreneurship is seen as a key to economic and developmental process. When people are exposed to entrepreneurship, it is evident that they would be opened to opportunities that will enable them to become creative and productive. This will enhance job creation and improve the standard of living of the individuals in the society. Sanda (2010) considered entrepreneurship education as an indispensable ingredient for job creation. He asserts that Nigeria and other countries of the world are seeking to increase the entrepreneurship capacities of their citizens with the understanding that it will contribute to economic growth and development. The Nigerian government recognized that in order to empower young people (between the ages of 18 to 35) economically, there is a need to formulate the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) which aims at transforming its economy and growing small businesses in the country. In spite of all the opportunities offered by the Nigerian government, economically and otherwise, entrepreneurship education has still received little or no attention. Like every other aspect of education and empowerment programmes in Nigeria, entrepreneurship education faces a lot of challenges which inhibits its effectiveness on graduate manpower development such as poor and lack of accessible road network, inadequate funding, irregular power supply, lack of security, in-depth corruption and lack of basic technological skills. Hence, the need for this study, which seeks to assess the role of entrepreneurship education on graduate manpower development in Lagos State.
Statement of the Problem
The present rate of unemployment in Lagos state is threatening. The desire to provide employment in the state is one of the major aspirations of the government. The government has over the years evolved measures of providing job opportunities both at the federal and state levels. The jobs being provided seems not to be enough as a result of the teeming population in the state. The inability of the government to provide adequate job opportunities has rather made some youths (graduates) take to armed robbery; kidnapping; prostitution and other social vices, which have made them become deviants in the society, and has in turn led to insecurity in the nation. This may be because the graduates are not informed on the types of entrepreneurship programmes to be embarked upon, and therefore, calls for entrepreneurship education programme.
The unacceptable rate of youth unemployment in the country, the low standard of living and the hope of technological transfer which is tending towards a mirage may be because of poor production capacity of the workforce, have led to a renewed interest in entrepreneurship education programme for graduates in Lagos state.
Also, Shortage of skills remains a serious problem in Lagos State. Over 80% of the youths in Lagos State are unemployed simply because they do not have the required skills (Akukwe, 2009). The skill deficit graduates is considered to be constraint to a long term economic growth and a contributing factor to incidence of youth unemployment.
Although several attempts have been made at encouraging entrepreneurial activities for graduates in Lagos state in the past, there is no gain saying the fact that these initiatives failed to produce the desired results. Various constraints such as; poor and lack of accessible road network, inadequate funding, irregular power supply, lack of security, in-depth corruption and lack of basic technological skills have seriously affected the implementation processes of entrepreneurship education programme in Lagos state.
Also, the ability to produce, use knowledge and market products has become major factor in development, and they are critical to a nation’s comparative advantage. Education for a knowledge economy should cultivate the highly skilled, flexible and human capital needed to compete in global markets. With the continuous shift to knowledge-based economy that affects virtually every nation in the world and makes for a more competitive landscape, it is imperative than ever before that we prepare our graduates for the challenges ahead through entrepreneurship production and marketing skills .
Nigeria occupies the 115th position in the global competitiveness ranking of nations (behind Ghana, Kenya, Liberia and Cameroun) as contained in the Global Competitiveness report for 2012-2013 organized by the World Economic Forum. Though Nigeria’s present ranking is an improvement over previous years, it shows that the level of productivity in Nigeria is relatively very low. Unless effective strategies are utilized to arrest this situation, the future generations and the workforce (graduates included), will always take the last position in development rankings.
It is therefore, against this background that the researcher examines entrepreneurship education for graduate manpower development in Lagos state.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to investigate entrepreneurship education on graduate manpower development in Lagos State. Specifically, the study sought to:
- Identify the types of entrepreneurship education programmes for graduate manpower development in Lagos state.
- Determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced production potentials of graduates in Lagos state.
- Determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced skill acquisition among graduates in Lagos state.
- Determine the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced marketing potentials of graduates in Lagos State.
- Ascertain the factors militating against the provisions of entrepreneurial education for graduate manpower development in Lagos state.
- Examine the strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education provision for graduate manpower development in Lagos State.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the study is anchored on human capital theory, propounded by Schultz in 1960s. This theory is of the idea that humans are indispensable factors of production in any business. It is a factor of production along with certain other factors such as land, labour, and capital. But these factors are being activated and utilized by human abilities for maximum productivity. So, without manpower development, other factors and resources in the society will not be harnessed. This theory is in line with the present study, as the study is geared towards equipping the graduates with the relevant skills needed for effective productivity and self-reliance.
Practically, the findings of this study will be of immense benefit to graduates, adult education facilitators, curriculum experts, government, further researchers and the entire society. On the side of graduates, the findings will assist them to be actively engaged in income generating business establishment; which will in turn alleviate poverty and rate of unemployment among them in Lagos State. It will enable them to be creative, innovative and to develop their dormant potentials for business ventures ahead.
Additionally, the findings of this study will be of immense benefit to adult education facilitators. This study will enable them update their knowledge and teaching methods; so that they can provide entrepreneurship education and economic empowerment for different categories of people, including graduates.
This study will also be of benefit to curriculum experts. The findings will assist them to update and reform entrepreneurship education curriculum for graduates; from time to time; to meet the dynamism and demands of the national economy and increased productivity. This study will equally ensure that entrepreneurship education are properly infused into the curriculum of all level of education to enable the learners identify viable business opportunities in their area of studies.
On the side of government, the finding of this study will benefit the government by establishing legislation for enhancing entrepreneurship education in for graduates. Equally; the findings of this study will motivate government to establish small business schools where interested graduates and community members can participate and their skills enhanced for self reliance.
This study will assist the government to establish an enterprising college aimed at fostering the specific skills such as; marketing skills, production skills and skill acquisition programmes required for effective business management.
The following research questions will guide the study:
- What are the types of entrepreneurship education programmes for graduate manpower development?
- To what extent does entrepreneurship education enhanced production potentials among graduates in Lagos state?
- To what extent does entrepreneurship education enhanced skills acquisition of graduates in Lagos State?
- To what extent does entrepreneurship education enhanced marketing potentials of graduates in Lagos state?
- What were the factors militating against the effective provisions of entrepreneurial education for graduate manpower development in Lagos State?
- What are the strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education for graduate manpower development in Lagos State?
The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study and will be tested at 0.5 level of significance:
HO1: There will be no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female graduates on the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced skill acquisition for graduate manpower development in Lagos state.
HO2: There will be no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female graduates on the extent to which entrepreneurship education enhanced marketing potentials for graduate manpower development in Lagos state.
Scope of the Study
Geographically, the study was carried out in Lagos state. The study was focused on entrepreneurship education for graduate manpower development in Lagos State. The content coverage of this study was limited to some major areas like; examining the types of entrepreneurship programme for graduate manpower development, extent entrepreneurship education enhance production potentials of graduates, extent to which entrepreneurship education enhance the skill acquisition of graduates, extent entrepreneurship education enhance marketing potentials of graduates, factors militating against the provisions of entrepreneurial education for graduates and strategies for enhancing entrepreneurship education provision for graduate manpower development in Lagos State.