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The research study was solely designed to examine, describe and quantity the role of parental status in the academic performance of students in some selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. In the course of this study, the concept parental status and the negative and positive effect was looked into. The idea of different authors about parental status was equally examined. Students in Akenzua 11 secondary school, Idia College, Emotan College, Paragon comprehensive secondary school, Travis Christian College, and Dr. Garrick memorial secondary school were used as samples. The study was aimed at finding out how parents’ status, family background, peer group curiosity etc. contribute to students’ academic performance in Oredo Local Government Area. The results of the research shows that students academic performance is determined by their parental status. The investigation also shows that parental status includes low income earners and high income earners and high income earners, broken home, parental background, violence homes, single parents home. It was discovered that parents status affect students academic performance and causes dropout. Therefore, this work recommends that the mass media should mount heavy awareness on the positive and negative impact of parents involvement in their children’s academic and also call for the introduction of some meaningful and educational activities for the students. The provision of counselling services of schools and the imposition of some levies to restrict parents from not providing the students with their necessary teaching involvement, care, finance and advice. It was also discovered that parental status causes some students to loose their focus, ambition, goals, due to frustration. Parental status alters behaviour on the part of the students in the students learning situation.


Chapter One           

1.0             Introduction

1.1             Background for the study

1.2             Statement of the study

1.3             Research questions

1.4             Purpose of the study

1.5             Significance of the study

1.6             Scope and delimitation of the study

1.7             Limitation

1.8             Definition of terms

Chapter Two           

2.0             Literature review

Chapter Three        

Research Methodology

2.1             Research Design

2.2             Population of the study

2.3             Sample and sampling procedure

2.4             Research instrument

2.5             Validity and reliability of the instrument

2.6             Administration of instrument

2.7             Method of data collection

2.8             Method of data analysis

Chapter Four          

4.0       Data analysis, interpretation and discussion of result

4.1       Use of relevant tables to present and analyze the data

Chapter Five           

5.0       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation






From birth to age eighteen children spend just a fraction of  their lives in school. Thus it is not surprising that many factors outside the school environment can significantly influence students prospects for academic success in schools. These factors (parental status) is in play both during the years before children begin formal schooling and while they are actually enrolled in elementary and secondary school. a diverse array of issues, including parents beliefs and expectations about education, the availability and quality of child care, family economic status, the persistence, or absence, of violence in a child life, access to social services, physical and mental health issues, opportunities for constructive, healthy activities outside of school; and the nature and strength of school community connections, can make a difference in a child’s opportunities to do well in school.

A commonly used phrase but one that has the ring of substantial truth is that parents are their children’s first teachers. Parents beliefs expectations and attitudes about education and their children’s achievement have a profound early impact on students conceptions of the place of education in their lives. What parents think about the importance (or unimportance) of doing well in school is often mirrored in students results. A study into some selected schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State found that nearly all students (97%) who earned mostly A’s and B’s on their report cards reported that their parents encouraged them to do well in school. among students who earned mostly C’s nearly half (49%) said they received little parental encouragement. Some families clearly have more resources to devote to their children and can move easily find time to spend nurturing and encouraging them. When both parents work can increasingly common phenomenon or when a child is being raised by a single parent, finding time to read to the child to encourage the completion of homework. Many children grow up in home with an abundance of fiscal and materials resources. But not all do. Poverty takes a tool on student’s school performance. Poor children are twice as likely as their more affluent counterparts to repeat a grade to be suspended, expelled or drop out of high school and to be placed in special education classes. Family composition and economic circumstances are often intertwined. More than half of the poor families are headed by an unmarried mother who must balance employment issues (these women are often trapped in love – wage jobs) with child care and parenting responsibilities. In sum, children from more economically affluent home circumstances have a leg up in many areas of life, including education.

This research shows that despite the compelling importance of robust physical and mental health to students prospects for academic success, not surprisingly access to quality services is often a function of family income. The less financially stable the child’s family the less likely the child is to have regular medical care. Children covered by health insurance are more likely to have better access to health care than children not covered by such insurance. Uninsured students are under significant risks factors particularly for adolescent, are drugs, and alcohol drinking, smoking cigarettes and using harder drugs, from marijuana to cocaine can cause substantial long term physical and mental health problems, in the short term use of many of these substance can cause reduced school attendance and general in attention to school studies.


Having gotten a good understanding of the parental status in the academic performance of the students, it will be of great importance to precisely and with concise examine the statement of the problem. This study is aimed at investigating the role of parental status among some selected secondary school students academic performance in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. However, the researcher will investigate this study in the following capacity.

To identify the various problems faced by the students due to their parental status that causes most of them to dropout of school, performing so low in academic works and engaging in social vises.


Based on the above, issues discussed so far, the study will focus on seeking answers to the following questions.

1.                 What type of family do people of Oredo Local Government Area practices?

2.                 Does parental background affect student’s academic performance?

3.                 Is there any difference between the children of high income ear5ners and low income earners?

4.                 Does the medical status (health) of the students affect his/her academics?

5.                 Does parental involvement and family size affect student’s education?


The main objectives of this study as intended by the researcher to investigate and highlight the role of parental status in the academic performance of the students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Though, this study is limited to Oredo, its research findings may be applicable to other parts of Nigeria. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to supplement the existing findings on the topic.

1.                 To investigate the role of parental status in the academic performance among students of Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.

2.                 To find out to what extent with which parental involvement in students academic improve their performance either positively or negatively.

3.                 To determine how good salary structure can upgrade or affect a student’s academic performance.

4.                 To identify the various factors to be considered in the academic performance of students in relationship with parental status.


The significance of the study, the role of parental status in the academic performance among students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State cannot be over emphasized. The study is not only much significant to Nigeria in general. Amongst the importance of this research works are:

1.                 It will serve as a reading text to knowledge about how parent’s socio-economic status affect the performance of students.

2.                 It will serve as a veritable tools for seminars, public lecturers as well as a medium of awareness campaign on the role of parental status.

3.                 It will serve as an expository literature, on parents involvement irrespective of the occupational status not only to secondary students but to all and sundry.

4.                 It will help in exposing the teacher to the influence of parental status in the academic performance of the student.

5.                 It also help planners to know that children are from different family background.

6.                 It will be useful to educationalist.

Above all this piece of work will offer very useful suggestion on the implication and role of family and teacher play to prevent low parental engagements in the students academic performance of Oredo Locality and the need to rehabilitate the PTA (parents, teachers association) meeting.


The role of parental status in the academic performance of the students, tends to cover some selected recognized (private and government) secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.


Students – children (secondary school students) in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State.

Parent – the father and mother to a child (student) in Oredo

Academics – educational study by a student

Role – the duties

Performance – the act of carrying into effect, to do a task

Academic performance – this has to do with a student carry into effect either negatively or positively his/her educational studies

Low income earners – these are parents who salary structure are low due to their kind of low occupation or no occupation at all e.g. the poor.

High income earners – these are parents who salary structures are due to their kind of job or business

Socio-economic status – it has to do with parents occupation, moral, marital, educational status and level of knowledge


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