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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of content

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

 

Abstract

This study was on Using stories to improve pupils’ listening skills among kindergartens two (K G 2) pupils at Anglican primary school.  The total population for the study is 200 selected staffs of selected primary schools in Accra, Ghana. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up of headmasters, headmistresses, teachers and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

 Chapter one

Introduction

1.1Background of the study

Many Ghanaian children begin primary education by age six and these children are still in their early childhood period. According to World Bank (2011), early childhood period is the most rapid period of development in human life. Although individual children develop at their own pace, all children progress through an identifiable sequence of physical, cognitive, social and emotional growth and change. Physically, six year old children have improved use of all their different body parts which allows for better gross and fine motor skills and they are more aware of their body positions and movements. Socially, they are very interested in their peers’ opinions and abilities, both for social comparison and for the sake of making friends. Also, they have close emotional attachments with the pivotal adults in their lives including teachers. Emotionally, they are not good in understanding accurately another person’s emotions as awareness of others emotions may play a role in the reduction of aggressive and disruptive behaviours among primary school children (Tornlinson, 2009). Intellectually, Anthony (2014) noted that they are in the latter phase of Piaget’s preoperational period, the time during which children learn to use language. Children’s thought and communications are typically egocentric (about themselves). Another key feature which children display during this stage is animism.

Animism is the belief that inanimate objects have human feelings and intentions (McLeod, 2012). While some of this thinking actually fuels creativity, supporting the development of a child’s schema (her foundation knowledge) around animals and habitats is a wonderful way to advance the child’s thinking and understanding of the world (Anthony, 2014) Also, children in this age group are concrete learners (Thomlinson, 2009) learning should be supported with lots of visuals or real objects in the classroom. One of the goals of primary education in Ghana is inculcation of permanent literacy and the ability to communicate effectively (FGN, 2004). Literacy creates the foundation for a lifetime and allows a wide range of opportunities. Primary school literacy involves developing oral and written communication in all subject areas. Primary school pupils can learn literacy skills through instruction and practice of speaking, reading, writing and listening (Grayson, 2013). Listening is the process of taking in information through the sense of hearing and making meaning from what was heard. Listening comprehension prepares young children for later reading comprehension (Jalongo, 2008). This may be the reason why Brown (2012) submitted that it is crucial for a child to develop good listening skills in order to cope with the academic demands of school and to learn adequate literacy skills. Listening skill helps children to guide their self-inquiry and discover their individual possibilities. Children who are active listeners can incorporate the things they hear faster in their framework of knowledge than a more passive counterpart. In his own view, Tramel (2011) observed that Children can also exhibit better concentration and memory when they develop good listening skill. Listening is very important because of all the language skills that young children develop, listening is the one that develops earliest and is practiced most frequently (Roskos, Christie and Richgels, 2003). Studies conducted on children’s listening, both in and outside school, estimated that between 50 and 90 percent of children’s communication time is devoted to listening (Wolvin and Coakely 2000; Gilbert, 2005). Listening is central to a child’s development of other skills, including survival, social and intellectual skills. (Wolvin and Coakley, 2000). Listening comprehension is considered one of the skills most predictive of overall, long-term school success (Brigman, Lane and Switzer, 2001). In their studies, Isbell, Sobol, Lindauer and Lowrance ( 2004), Gallets (2005) and Philips (2000) revealed that storytelling improves the listening skills of children.

In spite of the many advantages embedded in teaching listening to children, an observation of the teaching and learning activities in our primary schools revealed that is not given adequate attention. This supports the report of Smith (2003) that despite the fact that listening is the language skill that is used the most, it is the one that is taught the least in the classroom. The fact that listening has been neglected or poorly taught may have stemmed from the belief that it is a passive skill and that merely exposing learners to the spoken language provides adequate instruction in listening comprehension (Call, 1985). What may not be realized however is that stories which employ the use of illustrations are vital in teaching listening skills to children. Tales and stories are effective and useful listening materials for children to develop listening comprehension and literacy both in their first and second language (Zevenbergenn and Whitehurst, 2003). Storytelling is one of the oldest methods of communicating ideas and images (Mello, 2001). In the traditional African societies, young children were told stories by their parents, grandparents, uncles and aunts. According to Omoleye (1977), folktales played a very important role in the community life of Nigerians. Although the stories were unwritten, they have been passed down from generations without losing their originality. As important as storytelling is to the education of young children, it is not accorded adequate attention in primary schools (Mello, 2001 and Philip 2000). It has been observed that children spend more time with the electronic media and lesser time listening to stories because parents lead such busy lives that they no longer have time to read bedtime stories to their children (TalkTalk Group, 2011) instead they prefer their children to fill their evenings watching the television and playing games (Paton, 2012).

Statement of the problem

Storytelling is one of the oldest methods of communicating ideas and images (Mello, 2001). In the traditional African societies, young children were told stories by their parents, grandparents, uncles and aunts. Tales and stories are effective and useful listening materials for children to develop listening comprehension and literacy both in their first and second language (Zevenbergenn and Whitehurst, 2003). According to Omoleye (1977), folktales played a very important role in the community life of Nigerians. Although the stories were unwritten, they have been passed down from generations without losing their originality. As important as storytelling is to the education of young children, it is not accorded adequate attention in primary schools (Mello, 2001 and Philip 2000). It has been observed that children spend more time with the electronic media and lesser time listening to stories because parents lead such busy lives that they no longer have time to read bedtime stories to their children (TalkTalk Group, 2011) instead they prefer their children to fill their evenings watching the television and playing games. Based on this the researcher wants to investigate Using stories to improve pupils’ listening skills among kindergartens two (K G 2) pupils at Anglican primary school.

Objective of the study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain whether stories improve pupils’ listening skills among kindergartens two (K G 2) pupils at Anglican primary school.
  2. To examine the effect of gender on the listening skills of kindergartens two (K G 2) pupils at Anglican primary school.
  3. To ascertain the impact of stories on pupil and their academic performance

Research hypotheses

The following have been put forward for testing

H0: stories do not improve pupils’ listening skills among kindergartens two (K G 2) pupils at Anglican primary school

H1:  stories improve pupils’ listening skills among kindergartens two (K G 2) pupils at Anglican primary school

H0: there is no impact of stories on pupil and their academic performance

H2: there is impact of stories on pupil and their academic performance

Significance of the study

The study will be very significant to students and ministry of education in Ghana. The study will give a clear insight on the Using stories to improve pupils’ listening skills among kindergartens two (K G 2) pupils at Anglican primary school. The study will serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on the related topic

Scope and limitation of the study

The scope of the study covers Using stories to improve pupils’ listening skills among kindergartens two (K G 2) pupils at Anglican primary school. The researcher encounters some constraints which limit the scope of the study namely:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

 Definition of terms

Story tale: A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or Märchen is an instance of a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story

Listening: Listening is the active process of receiving and responding to spoken (and sometimes unspoken) messages. Listening is not just hearing what the other party in the conversation has to say

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