The Awareness of Causes and Prevention of Coronavirus (Covid-19) Among Secondary School Student in Adamawa State

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

In December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases was discovered in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was subsequently shown to be caused by a new coronavirus (dubbed “2019-nCoV”). By January 30, 2020, China has recorded 9692 verified cases and 15,238 suspected cases across 31 provinces and cities. There were 1527 severe cases among the confirmed cases, 171 of which had recovered and been released at home, and 213 of which had died. In China, there were 28 verified cases ranging in age from one month to seventeen years (Ajazeera, 2020).

Coronavirus (CoV) is a member of the Coronaviridae family, which is part of the Nidovirales order. The four genera of Coronaviruses are -, -, -, and -coronaviruses. Only mammals are infected by – and -coronaviruses, whereas only a few mammals are infected by – and -coronaviruses. -coronaviruses (229E and NL63), -coronaviruses (OC43 and HKU1), Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and 2019-nCoV are all examples of human CoVs. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV are all members of the -coronavirus genus, as are bat-SARS-like (SL)-CoVZC45, bat-SL-CoVZXC21, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV.

According to recent research, 2019-nCoV may have originated in wild animals, although the specific source is unknown. Patients infected with 2019-nCoV are the major sources of infection (Bedford et al., 2020 ). Asymptomatic instances, on the other hand, should be given attention since they may play a crucial part in the transmission process. The major modes of transmission are respiratory droplets and touch. The main transmission routes of 2019-nCoV infection in children are close contact with symptomatic cases and asymptomatic cases with silent infection. 2019-nCoV is contagious among people of all ages. Severe instances are more likely to occur in the elderly and those with underlying chronic conditions. So far, all pediatric instances of 2019-nCoV infection that have been verified in the lab have been mild, and no fatalities have been recorded. We convened an expert team to draft this consensus statement in order to standardize the prevention and treatment of 2019- nCoV infections in children (Paital et al., 2020). This statement is based on the National Health Committee’s Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (fourth edition) and other earlier pediatric virus infection diagnosis and treatment methodologies.

According to current epidemiological statistics, the incubation period of 2019-nCoV infections may last anywhere from 1 to 14 days, with the majority of cases lasting 3 to 7 days. The age of illness onset in pediatric patients varied from 1.5 months to 17 years, with the majority of them having had close contact with infected individuals or being familial cluster cases. Infected children may appear asymptomatic or show signs of infection such as fever, dry cough, and fatigue, and only a few have upper respiratory symptoms such as nasal congestion and runny nose. Some patients also showed signs of infection such as abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The majority of infected youngsters show just minor clinical symptoms (Paital et al., 2020). They have no fever or pneumonia symptoms and have an excellent prognosis. The majority of them recover within 1–2 weeks after the commencement of the condition. Few people will develop lower respiratory infections. There have been no positive neonates delivered by 2019-nCoV infected women, and no newborn cases have been recorded. Clinical symptoms in pediatric patients should be further characterized after collecting additional pediatric case data, it should be underlined. Furthermore, as pathogen analysis becomes more widely used, the number of confirmed infected patients will rise.

Adult data shows that severe individuals often develop dyspnea one week following the commencement of the illness. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis, and coagulation malfunction may all develop quickly in severe instances. Despite the fact that no child fatalities have been documented to yet, the possibility for mortality should be recognized. ARDS and mortality instances occurred in infected children during the SARS and MERS outbreaks, despite the fact that clinical signs in pediatric patients are often less than in adult patients (Pragholapati, 2020). Differential diagnosis is required to rule out influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, SARS coronavirus, and other recognized viral diseases, as well as mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia pneumoniae, and bacterial pneumonia. The presence of additional viruses and/or bacteria in the 2019-nCoV infection should be taken into account when making a diagnosis. Because secondary school students in the age group of 12-18 years are the most active yet vulnerable, and have a higher chance of coming into close contact with one another (for studies, entertainment, etc.) when the lockdown is lifted, it is critical to understand their knowledge and practices regarding COVID-19 prevention. This will aid them in devising effective strategies for expanding their knowledge and enhancing their practices. The purpose of this research is to determine if secondary school students in Adamawa state are aware of the causes and prevention of coronavirus (covid-19).

1.2 Statement of problem

Coronavirus illness is communicated mostly by coughing or sneezing with an infected individual. It may also spread when a person contacts a virus-infected surface or item and then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth (Pragholapati, 2020). Because of the close vicinity to animal reservoirs, open design of African settlements, the habit of drying grains by roadside or outside dwellings, and exposed grain storage inside households, rural residents in West Africa are at danger of coronavirus. All of these conditions have been linked to increased rodent-human interaction or food contamination by diseased rat secretions. For a highly contagious disease with symptoms and signs that are similar to other endemic diseases, the creation of awareness amongst community members is very important in endemic areas Gostin (2020). The majority of patients infected with the COVID-19 virus will have mild to moderate respiratory symptoms and will recover without needing any specific therapy. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. Being thoroughly educated on the COVID-19 virus, the sickness it produces, and how it transmits is the greatest strategy to avoid and slow down transmission. Wash your hands regularly or use an alcohol-based rub to protect yourself and others from infection, and avoid touching your face.

When an infected individual coughs or sneezes, the COVID-19 virus transmits predominantly via droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose, therefore respiratory etiquette is particularly vital (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).

As a result, it is critical for secondary school students to have a basic understanding of the virus in order to learn how to avoid getting it; yet, various barriers to awareness exist, such as the absence of a television set, a radio set, or internet connection, to name a few. As a result, the purpose of this research was to determine if secondary school students in Adamawa state were aware of the causes and prevention of coronavirus (covid-19).

1.3 Objective of the study

The main objective of this study is to examine the awareness of causes and prevention of coronavirus (covid-19) among secondary school student in Adamawa state. Specifically this study therefore, sought to:

  1. Determine the awareness level of coronavirus among secondary school student in Adamawa state.
  2. Ascertain if student have the knowledge of transmission, risk factors, symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among secondary school student in Adamawa state.
  3. Determine the preventive practices against coronavirus among secondary school student in Adamawa state.

1.4       Research Question

The study attempt to answer the following research questions

  1. What is the level of awareness of coronavirus among secondary school student in Adamawa state?
  2. What is the level of knowledge of transmission, risk factors, symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student in Adamawa state and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus?
  3. What is the preventive practices against coronavirus among student in Adamawa state?

1.5       Hypothesis of the study

The following hypothesis were formulated and tested

Ho: the level of awareness of coronavirus prevention among secondary school student in Adamawa state is low.

H1: the level of awareness of coronavirus prevention among secondary school student in Adamawa state is high.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways.  COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment. People who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death.

This study will impact the knowledge of transmission, risk factors, symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among secondary school student in Adamawa state .

The study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature on covid19.

1.7 Scope Of  The Study

This study will determine the awareness level of coronavirus among secondary school student in Adamawa state. The study will also ascertain if student have the knowledge of transmission, risk factors, symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among secondary school student in Adamawa state. Lastly, the study determine the preventive practices against coronavirus among secondary school student in Adamawa state. Hence the study will be delimited to selected secondary schools in Yola.

1.8       Limitation Of The Study

 The researcher encountered various challenges during the research process. They included insufficient funds for stationery, transport and buying other important materials to facilitate the carrying of the study. Also shortage of time because the researcher still has to attend lecture while still carrying out the research.

1.9       Definition of Terms

Awareness: knowledge or perception of a situation or fact.

Corona virus: any of a group of RNA viruses that cause a variety of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in humans and other animals.

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