CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a novel virus that causes an infectious illness. The corona virus was initially discovered in Wuhan, China, and has since spread to over 70 nations worldwide. The disease is known to cause respiratory sickness (similar to the flu) with symptoms such as cough, fever, exhaustion, and, in more serious instances, trouble breathing and death (Addagarla, 2019). Most health practitioners recommend regular hand washing with clean running water, avoiding touching your face, and avoiding close contact (1 meter or 3 feet) with persons who are ill. Since the first case of this virus in Nigeria, the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC, 2021) has outlined some safety measures in order to prevent the virus from spreading and eventually eradicating it completely. Some of the safety measures are also in line with the World Health Organization’s (WHO, 2020) prescriptions for dealing with the deadly virus. A recent research in Nigeria revealed the fatal virus’s exponential growth, prompting numerous Nigerian governments to shut down activities and limit gatherings of more than 20 people. In all other cases, research suggests that the corona (COVID 19) virus is spread by respiratory droplets (such as coughing/sneezing) and fomites during close contact. When a COVID-19 sufferer coughs or exhales, droplets contact the nose, mouth, or eyes of another person, the virus may transfer straight from person to person. Alternatively, since the droplets are too heavy to fly, they fall on objects and surfaces in the immediate vicinity of the person. Others get the COVID-19 Virus by contacting contaminated things or surfaces and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth. Furthermore, as a consequence of the dramatic decline in crude oil prices, the Nigerian economy has been badly impacted by the consequent shutdown of operations throughout the globe in order to impose social separation. As a result, WHO continues to suggest that everyone wash their hands often, follow respiratory etiquette guidelines, and clean and disinfect surfaces on a regular basis. The World Health Organization (WHO,2020) continues to emphasize the necessity of maintaining physical distances and avoiding those who have a fever or are experiencing respiratory symptoms. These precautions will help to keep the virus from spreading.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The outbreak of the COVID 19 Virus in Nigeria has resulted in a partial shutdown of economic operations, as practically all states have closed their borders, preventing the free movement of people and products, which has helped to stimulate the economy over time (Sprinklr, 2020). People have stayed home as a consequence of the atrial shutdown’s exponential growth, social gatherings have plummeted, and companies have suffered a setback. All of this has occurred as a consequence of the deadly virus that has continued to sweep the planet, with China, Spain, Italy, and the United States of America being considered as the epicenter due to the large number of people who have died in these nations. The virus’s disruption of international peace has had a detrimental impact on crude oil prices, which has further harmed our mono-economy (majorly oil dependent). However, carrying out social distancing, particularly in Nigeria, is fraught with difficulties, including illiteracy, disinformation, and a lack of understanding of the virus, to name a few. The research investigates the role of social distance and regular hand washing in preventing the transmission of the corona virus (covid 19) in Nigeria.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to determine the effect of social distancing and constant hand washing in reducing the spread of corona virus (covid 19) in Nigeria. Specific objectives include;

i.            To examine effect of the outbreak of Corona (COVID 19) virus on the social life of Nigerians.

ii.            To examine the impact of social distancing and constant hand washing on the control of the COVID 19 virus.

iii.            To examine if social distancing helped the reduction in the spread of the virus.

iv.            To examine the relationship between proper and adequate sensitization and the spread of the COVID 19 Virus in Nigeria.

v.            To recommend other ways of reducing the spread of COVID 19 Virus in Nigeria.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

i.                        What is the effect of the outbreak of Corona (COVID-19) virus on the social life of Nigerians?

ii.                        What is the impact of social distancing and constant hand washing on the control of the COVID 19 virus?

iii.                        Did social distancing helped the reduction in the spread of the corona virus ?

iv.                        Is there a relationship between proper and adequate sensitization and the spread of the COVID 19 Virus in Nigeria?

v.                        What are the other ways of reducing the spread of COVID 19 Virus in Nigeria?

1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Hypothesis I

H0:  The outbreak of Corona (COVID 19) virus has no significant effect on the social life of Nigerians.

H1:  The outbreak of Corona (COVID 19) virus has significant effect on the social life of Nigerians.

Hypothesis II

H0: There is no significant impact of social distancing and constant hand washing on the control of the COVID I9 Virus in Nigeria.

H1: There is a significant impact of social distancing and constant hand washing on the control of the COVID I9 Virus in Nigeria.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study would be of immense importance towards containing of this deadly virus and its eventual eradication in Nigeria. Findings from this study would also help in tackling future outbreak of this kind of diseases in Nigeria. This study would also be beneficial to scholars, researchers and students who are willing to develop further studies on the subject matter.

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study will examine effect of the outbreak of Corona (COVID 19) virus on the social life of Nigerians. The study will also examine the impact of social distancing and constant hand washing on the control of the COVID 19 virus. The study will further  examine if social distancing helped the reduction in the spread of the virus. More so , the study will investigate the relationship between proper and adequate sensitization and the spread of the COVID 19 Virus in Nigeria. Lastly, the study will  recommend other ways of reducing the spread of COVID 19 Virus in Nigeria. Hence this work is delimited to   the federal capital territory Abuja

1.8   LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Social Distancing: Social distancing, also called physical distancing, is a set of non-pharmaceutical interventions or measures taken to prevent the spread of a contagious disease by maintaining a physical distance between people and reducing the number of times people come into close contact with each other.

Hand washing: Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning one’s hands to remove soil, grease, microorganisms, or other unwanted substances.

Coronavirus (COVID-19): This is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

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