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Abstract On Effect Of Commercial Sex Workers On Girls In Nigeria
The incessant happenings of commercial sex work has given serious concern to the government, parents, health workers and the society. The causes and effects of commercial sex work among Benue State girls in makurdi local government area is the main concern of this study. The study seeks to find out the possible ways in which the problem of commercial sex work can be eradicated in the society. The study was empirically conducted where data was obtained through the primary and secondary sources. Instrument for data collection was questionnaire. Data was collected and analysed with simple percentage while the hypothesis stated were tested with percentage (%). The result in hypothesis one showed that, commercial sex work has implication on our general sexual health or wellbeing that is the act of sex work has a negative effect on our sexual being. In hypothesis two, which states that commercial sex workers do not have an effect on girls in Makurdi.
Chapter One on Effect Of Commercial Sex Workers On Girls In Nigeria
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Commercial sex is conventionally known as the trade of money, goods, property, etc for sexual services rendered or that will be rendered. It has to do with two or more people, being the sex worker and client(s).
Primarily, commercial sex is not constrained to any culture rather, it involves the whole world at large it goes beyond all age constrains because there are instances where young girls of eight nine years are involved. Commercial sex has transcended over the years specifically in Nigeria. This system of making money has transcended over time and has become more confusing and complicated in the sense that there are now male sex workers in Nigeria who have sex with men for commercial purpose. An organization supports them in makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria.
Sex work on the other hand is the supply of sexual services for money or goods. Sex workers are women, men and mixed-gendered people who accept money or goods traded for sexual services and who perceive the activities as a source of income and occupation.
Men and women/girls who are into this trade are liable to contact diseases. It has been discovered and proven that unprotected commercial sex has a major role in many HIV epidemics. There therefore a well-reasoned attestation that HIV transmission can be drastically minimized during commercial sex and thus, making an impact too large to be overlooked on the broader dynamics of the epidemic. Howbeit, loop holes in our knowledge considering the exact nature of transmission during commercial sex, stigmatization of sex workers, and the inability to recognize and work hand in hand with a good number of customers, have hindered quite a number of communities from enhancing productive prevention campaigns for sex workers and their respective customers.
In recent times, commercial sex has specifically become a thing of great concern and a turn on the country. There has been histories of human trafficking and trespass of people’s human right which has become a concern to the country. Over the years, commercial sex has carried as a wealth producing business in Nigeria specifically among our youths. From the previous research works on that, 45 percent of these sex workers are students. Moreover, there are numerous forms of sex workers and it involves those that stay in the motels, those that stand on the road side, those that operate from home, those that rented and lives in hotels, etc.
The negative effects of this trade on girls in Nigeria and the world at large are too numerous to mention. It is a proven fact that girls who are into this scheme encounter negative effect they make profit out from it. In most cases where there are rape or kidnap incidents, the victims are the sex workers. Sex work has been perceived as the major group for transmission of HIV/AIDS and STD and they face a challenge of isolation all over the world.
Specifically in Nigeria, sex work is perceived to be an illegal business because, the law is against it. Though there has not been any active action that has been taken against it by the government, aside in few states where there movement was restricted by the governors. Irrespective of the efforts made by the government and other private organization to terminate sex work in Nigeria, it has instead transcended to one of the major social problems that have really dealt with the people. It is on this platform that, this research work attempts to find a possible ways of completely eradicating this problem and also to find out the effects of commercial sex workers on girls in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
The negative consequences of commercial sex work both on the society and girls especially cannot be over emphasized, the increase in the cases of commercial sex work has resulted to the increase cases of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS which has regrettably been on the increase in recent times.
Poverty is probably the underlying factor in most commercial sexual behaviours. Poverty will lead to lack of education which may reduce earning power and lack of parental monitoring, and these may in turn lead to transactional sex, transgenerational sex or pursuit of multiple sexual partners. A growing body of evidence points to the complexity of sexual behaviour. Sexual risk behaviour is influenced by factors at three levels; within the person, within the proximal context (interpersonal relationships and physical and organizational environment) and within the distal context (cultural and structural factors). Poverty motivates both young males and females to engage in risky sex. According to a paper study from Nigeria, those whose fathers were unemployed and those who lived in poor households were more likely to have multiple sexual partners. Furthermore young people who did not live with both parents and had insufficient means were more likely to have multiple sexual partners. A study among out-of-school girls in Nigeria reported that almost half of the respondents were expected to find the means to supplement the funds they were given to meet their basic needs and most of them were found to be sexually active.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the effect of commercial sex workers on girls in Benue state and Nigeria by extension. Other specific objectives of the study include;
- To examine the level of commercial sexual work in Nigeria.
- To determine the rate of commercial sex work in Nigeria.
- To know the benefit of reducing commercial sexual work in Nigeria.
- To examine the nature of influence commercial sex workers have on girls in Nigeria.
- To recommend ways of reducing commercial sex work in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- What is the level of commercial sexual work in Nigeria?
- What is the nature of influence commercial sex workers have on girls in Nigeria?
- What are the ways of reducing commercial sex work in Nigeria?
- What are the benefits of reducing commercial sexual work in Nigeria?
- What is the rate of commercial sex work in Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: commercial sex work does not have implication on our general sexual health or wellbeing of sex workers in makurdi.
H1: commercial sex work have implication on our general sexual health or wellbeing of sex workers in makurdi.
H0: commercial sex workers do not have an effect on girls in makurdi.
H2: commercial sex workers have significant effect on girls in makurdi.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of importance to the general public and relevant stakeholders as it would reveal the effect of commercial sex workers on girls and the society in general. Theoretically, this work is in a position to add valuable literature to the area of gender studies generally. It will also provide valuable knowledge on girl’s involvement in commercial sex work and other associated risks that may not be known and thereby bridging the gap that exists with regards to literature in the area. Consequently, it will contribute in improving morality among girls in Makurdi. The findings of this study will also be of immense benefit to future researchers who may wish to conduct further research in this area or other related areas. All these will help to broaden the knowledge base of commercial sex work in Benue state. The findings of this study will be of benefit to students, lecturers, University administrators, counsellors, psychologists, sociologists, social workers, curriculum planners, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and the ministry of education, educational policy makers and other stakeholders in education. To the students, the study will provide vital information on the debilitating effects of prostitution on their academic performance and which, in the final analysis, will deter them from engaging in prostitution and face their studies squarely.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the effect of commercial sex workers on girls in Benue state, Nigeria.
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effects: is defined as a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause
Sex: Sexual intercourse, or coitus or copulation, is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Commercial: Concerned with or engaged in making or intending to make a profit.
Sex workers: sex worker is a person who is employed in the sex industry, including those who provide direct sexual services as well as the staff of such industries. Some sex workers are paid to engage in sex acts or sexually explicit behavior which involve varying degrees of physical contact with clients (prostitutes and some but not all professional dominants); pornography models and actors engage in sexually explicit behavior which are filmed or photographed.
Clients: Clients are people (usually men) who pay with cash or other resources for sexual services either explicitly or within an agreed package that includes other services such as entertainment or domestic service.
Transgender: describes people with a range of identities and behaviours, including both transvestism and transsexualism. Transgender identities, behaviours, legal status and physical states vary in different cultures and places. For the purposes of discussion of public health issues, transgender is a general term for people whose self–identity crosses gender.
Third parties: Third parties are people who play ancillary roles in commercial sex. These include arranging meetings between sex workers and clients and/or providing resources and services. These roles vary from place to place and in terms of influence and power over commercial sex and sex workers.
The commercial sex industry: is the combined phenomenon of individuals, establishments, customs and messages explicit and implicit, desired and undesired involved in commercial sex.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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