Effect Of Adoption Of Standard Management Practices On Field Of Rural Fish Farmers A Case Study Of Andoni Local Government Area Of Rivers State
Aquaculture has become increasingly important in meeting the deficit created by a declining capture fishery worldwide and increasing demand for fish at domestic market. Previous researches indicate that development of aquaculture in most Western Africa countries is constrained by low adoption of Standard Management Practices; weak aquaculture extension services and others. The purpose of this study is therefore to assess the effect of Adoption of Standard Management Practices on fish farming; the case of Andoni Local Government Area, Rivers state. The study followed Mixed Methods approach, where both qualitative and quantitative researches were applied. Closed ended questionnaires and interview were data collection instruments used for this study. An 80% response rate was obtained from in Andoni LGA respondents. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics focusing on the frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentages and the analysis was processed by using statistical package for the social sciences(SPSS) version 20. To analyze the qualitative data, content analysis was conducted and finally it was triangulated with the quantitative. Study finding showed that there is no strong competitive market for supplying the required inputs for fish farming. Even if, fish farming technology is found on a satisfactory level, the inadequate inputs are the challenges that affect fish farming in Andoni Local Government Area. Moreover, cost of adopting fish and the production cost for fish farming is found to be high which has its own negative impact on the sustainability of the business. This study recommended that Andoni Local Government Area need to provide the required infrastructure for its commercial aquaculture production to minimize the challenges of aquaculture practice, which helps itself for increasing productivity and profitability in the future.
1.1. Background of the Study
Nigeria’s key growth strategy is Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI), recognizing the importance of agriculture as the dominant source of the nation’s income. The Agricultural Sector Policy and Investment Framework (ASPIF), 2010-2021, aims to provide a strategic framework for the planning and prioritization of investments for growth and development in the agricultural sector, including “all forms of agriculture, livestock, fisheries, forestry, irrigation and natural resource management” (Kurien, John, Lopez Rios and Javier, 2013)
The Nigerian government adopted fisheries legislation in 2003 by virtue of the Fisheries Development and Utilization Proclamation No. 315/2003, with a view to ensuring the conservation, development and utilization of fishery resources in the country in a sustainable manner. Following this fishery legislation, the Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State is established in Amhara Region, Mechaworeda, kudmikeble in koga irrigation dam in 2015 for the provision of fish product in the region.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Fisheries Glossary, the fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products. Farming implies some sort of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators and it can also include encouraging of accessible market chain. This farming can be ran by individual or corporate ownership for planning of stock being cultivated, sites selection, development and operation of aquaculture systems, providing of facilities and practices, the production and transporting of the products (FAO, 2010).
Aquaculture practice was officially started in Nigeria after establishment of the former Sebeta Fish Culture Station (the current National Fishery and Aquatic Life Research Center) in 1977 by then Ministry of Agriculture. Since then the center stocked over 8 million fish fingerlings mainly Nile tilapia, Tilapia zilli and common carp mainly to develop extensive aquaculture system in the country (Wakjira, M., Tolemariam, T., Kim, J. D. and Kim, K. R., 2013).
From Nigerian perspectives, the Nigerian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) within the MoA is responsible for undertaking research in response to fisheries management and development needs. However, most of the research carried out in the past has been fragmented and academic, with limited relevance for practical fisheries development and management systems (FAO, 2003-2015).
The literature showed that the constraints affecting fish farming include technological as well as institutional challenges. Technological challenges range from unavailability of quality fingerlings (Kaunda, E., Khando, S., Chitsulo, T., Kapondamgaga, P., Jamu, D., Banda, J., Ng’ong’ola, D., Chirwa, B., Moyo, N. and Maluwa, A. (2010), high cost of feed (Shitote, Z., Wakhungu, J. and China, S. (2012) as well as inability to manipulate pond environment to improve fish growth (Russell & Dobson, 2009).
Marketing of fish is also hampered by several factors including lack of proper market infrastructure especially for fresh fish which are highly perishable; poor road network particularly feeder roads in rural areas which normally translates into high transportation costs and inadequate market information system with producers having limited knowledge on quantities required, where and at what price to sell (Wetengere, 2010). In addition, fish farmer organizations tend to be more common in communities where extension service has been active in mobilizing farmers to form clubs or developing income-generating activities, or where there has been external support (Kapanda, Ng’ong’, Matiya, Tchale, Jamu and Kaunda, 2003). Whilst some may operate effectively, many have a loose organizational structure, have poor leadership and have limited business. Against this background, the study was conducted in order to examine the challenges affecting the fish farmer organizations in relation to the sustainability of the fish farming in Andoni Local Government Area.
To the knowledge of the researcher, there is no previous research has been conducted directly on ASA fishing practice. It would be of special interest to the researcher personal curiosity in this specific area of fish farming to see the practicality of fish production in this private government. This research was focused on the factors that can affect productivity from the sustainability perspectives of the fish production in Andoni Local Government Area.
Information on independent variables like cost of inputs, provision of extension services, use of new technologies, and accessibility to market was gathered & investigated to scrutinize their influence on the dependent variable (the sustainability of aquaculture). Therefore, this study investigated the challenges that are influencing the sustainability of fish farming, in the case of Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
The current fisheries management practice in Nigeria mainly consists of a fishing licensing system aimed at regulating access to the fishery and some technical conservation measures. In practice, however, fisheries are under open access and the governance framework for fisheries management is inadequate. There is a lack of data and information on most water bodies, low research and development capacities, low participation of fishing communities in fisheries management and the fisheries administration is confronted with a serious lack of human and financial resources to achieve their objectives (Wakjira et al., 2013)
A study by Gakuu (2018) has identified several challenges that are mostly influencing the sustainability of aquaculture. These factors include cost of inputs which need to be readily available, of good quality and require fish farmers to have access to finance and market which need to be broadly available and the farmers to be able to produce adequate to supply continually to meet the high demand for fish.
Gakuu (2018), has also sought to determine how cost of inputs, provision of extension service, accessibility to market and use of technology influence the sustainability of small scale fish farmers. Accordingly, he observed that the former factor has insignificant influence on the small-scale fish farming sustainability & the latter three factors have been observed to positively influence fish farming sustainability at large; whereby the aforesaid studies were limited to investigate the issue only from their countries perspective.
According to Henry (2012) development of aquaculture in most Western Africa countries, however, is constrained by low adoption of appropriate technologies including biotechnology and bio-safety; inadequate investment into research to generate and disseminate aquaculture productivity enhancing technologies and innovations; weak aquaculture extension services, inadequate aquaculture extension services, low capacity in fish disease diagnosis, inadequate expertise, insufficient infrastructure, poor culture management and unavailability of quality fish seeds and feeds.
The overall experience to date indicates a lack of effective management actions, as a result of limited accessibility and application of scientific information, poor dissemination of management information, inappropriate and un harmonized fishery laws and regulations, inadequate enforcement of existing laws and regulations, weak institutions and institutional processes, and inadequate funds for implementing fishery programmes.
Likewise, the preliminary focus group discussion with Andoni, Nigeria, is showing that they are facing challenges that are influencing the sustainability of aquaculture. Due to many unknown reasons the sustainability of aquaculture is being apparently challenged in Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. As a result, there are significant variations between the LGA’s budget & actual performance time after time. The LGA’s management also is not new to entertain such budget variations. It’s normal to see declines in the farm’s productivity at random moment in time. The LGA’s fish farming needs to demonstrate sound operations by overcoming challenges that are influencing sustainability of fish farming & realize higher performance, customer satisfaction, and higher returns on investment & appear competitive.
Thus, this study assessed the challenges that are confronting the LGA’s productivity & aquaculture sustainability. For that matter, the study attempted a review of the past four years secondary data maintained in the organization. Furthermore, the study incorporated 1st hand information that was secured from the target groups (the fish farming management & farmers) through questionnaire & interview.
1.3. Basic Research Questions
As part of fish farming sustainability assessment, the study has formulated and attempted to answers the following basic research questions :
- What are the basic Standard Management Practices in fishery and how is it being conducted in Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State?
- What are the major challenges hindering the productivity of fish farming in Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State Nigeria?
- What is the effect of the application of standard management practices in fish farming?
1.4. Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Adoption of Standard Management Practices on field of Rural Fish Farmers in Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State.
The specific objectives of the study was to:
- Investigate the basic Standard Management Practices in fishery and how practices are being conducted in Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State?
- Identify the major challenges hindering the productivity of fish farming in Andoni Local Government Area of Rivers State
- Investigate the effect of the application of standard management practices in fish farming.
1.5. Significance of the Study
Since the sector itself is relatively new to the country and polices are devised based on theories rather than empirical facts on the ground, the study has its own a paramount contribution. When it comes to practice, things may bear their own challenges in implementation. Thus, policy makers at large would make use of the study findings as an empirical guide for making sound & informed decision. Besides this fact, the study will also contribute the following important points:
- To improve fish farming sustainability & solve practical societal or nutritional problems
- It provides information for users and other decision makers to act accordingly
- It fills knowledge gap that may exist & contributes to the context of
- It initiates and encourages other researchers to conduct comprehensive studies in this
- It helps the regional government, the LGA under study, the national government and other stakeholders to use the information in fiscal planning, management and any other decision relevant
Finally, it proposed significant values to Andoni LGA Nigeria & help to see the overall challenges influencing the actual performance and enable them use the study recommendations for their next appropriate actions & farm improvement decisions.
1.6. Scope of the Study
The boundary of the study is limited to the case of aquaculture in Nigeria particularly in. It was focused on the investigation of standard management practices in fish farming, the case of Andoni LGA Nigeria fish farmers only. The target group of this study was comprised from the population of interest, which were all farmers in Andoni LGA. For collection of qualitative and quantitative data this study employed a Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design as a strategy. In this study, both theoretical and empirical findings were reviewed, from which a conceptual frame work is derived to lead the research.
1.7. Limitation of the Study
Since there is limited enterprise focused on production of fish in Nigeria and due to lack of prior research studies on the topic, there was a problem in getting reliable data from other practitioners and this potentially limit the scope of the study analysis. This further can have a significant obstacle in finding a trend and a meaningful relationship between the dependent and the independent variable. Secondly, as the study applied a descriptive studies it is simply tried to describe the data on one or more characteristics of a group of individuals as a result there is a limitation of establishing relationships between variables. Moreover, it is clear that a statistical tests require a larger sample size to ensure a representative distribution of the population, but due to small size of the sample taken in the study there is an observable limitation on finding a significant relationship from the data. Moreover, data was collected using closed and open ended questionnaire and interview only. To some extent these gathered data inhibited to conduct a thorough analysis of the results it would be better to include observational data collection. In this study it was observed that open-ended questions get fewer and shallow responses, even some are hard to interpret and was difficult to categorize. This signifies there is a need in future research to revise the specific method for gathering data.
1.8. Organization of the Paper
The study is organized in five chapters including the present one. Chapter one introduces the study, giving an overview idea on the notion of aquaculture and spells out the statement of the problem, objectives, significance of the study, scope, and limitations of the study. Chapter two consists the review relevant literatures on empirical studies of fish farmers as well as related topics. The methodology part together with research design, data collecting tools, research procedures and data analysis technique is presented in Chapter three. Chapter four will present the results of analysis done and discussions on the findings. Chapter five will finally present drawn conclusions from the empirical findings and suggests recommendations.
1.9. Definition of Terms (Conceptual or Operational)
Aquaculture: Aquaculture also known as aqua farming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms. (http.//en.wikipedia.org)
Aquaponics :- refers to any system that combines conventional aquaculture (raising aquatic animals such as snails, fish, crayfish or prawns in tanks) with hydroponics (cultivating plants in water) in a symbiotic environment.(http.//en.wikipedia.org)
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