• Format: PDF Available
  • Format: MS-Word DOC Available
  • Pages: 71
  • File Size: 72kb
  • Chapters 1 to 5
  • With Abstract and References
  • Preview Chapter 2 Below


Effect of Covid-19 Lockdown Measures on Rice Marketing


At the global level and particularly across sub-Saharan African (SSA), while rice farmers and marketers are still battling the negative impact of climate change and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, the COVID-19 pandemic has brought a new risk that not only threatens farmers livelihoods but also the most important global food security crop “Rice”. This study was carried out on the effect of covid-19 lockdown measures on rice marketing. It was against this backdrop that this study was systematically undertaken. The study was meticulously guided five (5) objectives. A cross-sectional data was elicited from 95 rice farmers and marketers selected across Ebonyi state Nigeria. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as means, flow-chart, percentage and likert scale- type. There are disruptions in purchase of inputs because of restrictions (x̄ =≥3.12). Findings also developed incisive conceptual framework showing the effect of COVID-19 pandemic in rice farming. Result also shows that extension visits to farmers have been seriously limited (85.32% had no visit) due restrictions. With this present threat, Nigeria are likely to experience a reversal in the development gains already achieved and will be unlikely to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the aspirations of African Agenda 2063. The study therefore identified the need for governments at all levels in the country to design a sustainable policy in such a way that farmers should have access to affordable farm credit as well as subsidized agricultural inputs in order to increase their ability and flexibility to change in production strategies in response to COVID-19 pandemic.





Our focus in this chapter is to critically examine relevant literatures that would assist in explaining the research problem and furthermore recognize the efforts of scholars who had previously contributed immensely to similar research. The chapter intends to deepen the understanding of the study and close the perceived gaps.

Precisely, the chapter will be considered in three sub-headings:

  • Conceptual Framework
  • Theoretical Framework, and
  • Empirical Review


Origin of Covid-19

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 is a pandemic disease. As of January 24, 2020, at least 830 cases were diagnosed in the China, Japan, Singapore, Thailand, South Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, United States and Nepal in which twenty-six fatalities occurred, mainly in patients who had serious underlying illness [SARS-CoV-2, 2020]. Therefore, many details of the emergence of COVID-19 such as its origin and ability to spread among humans remain unknown, an increasing number of cases day by day appear to have resulted from human to human transmission [SARS-CoV-2, 2020]. China quickly responded and informed to World Health Organization for the outbreak and sharing sequence information with the international community after discovery of the causative agent. Quickly World Health Organization responds and coordinating diagnostic development and issuing guideline on patient monitoring, treatment and providing up to date information on the outbreak of COVID-19. Therefore, several countries are screening travelers from Wuhan for detect COVID-19 cases. All the airports in different countries including India put in screening mechanisms to detect infected people which returning from China or any other places. Countries including India who evacuated their citizens from Wuhan through special flights or had travelers returning from China placed all people symptomatic or otherwise in isolation for 14 day and tested them for the Coronavirus [UNESCO.org]. In fact on 12th February 2020, China changed the definition of confirmed cases of Coronavirus on the basis of the molecular tests but with radiological, clinical and epidemiologic features of COVID-19 leading to an increase in cases by 15,000 in a single day [UNESCO.org].

Mode of Transmission

People can be infected from COVID-19 through close contact with people who have symptoms of the virus which includes sneezing and cough. However, Coronavirus are generally spread via airborne zoonotic droplets and its replicate in ciliated epithelium which caused cellular damage and infection at infection site. Cascella et al. [SARS-CoV-2, 2020] has been reported that the transmission of COVID-19 occurs through the spread of airborne respiratory droplets by sneezing or coughing. Different studies are also suggested that the close contact between individuals can also result in Coronavirus transmission [Holcombe, 2020]. It’s also indicates the possible transmission in closed spaces due to elevated aerosol concentration . This virus can be transmitted through sneezing and coughing without covering the mouth can disperse in the minute droplets into the air, through touching or shaking hand with infected person, making contact with a surface or object that has the virus and then touching the mouth, nose or eyes [UNESCO.org].

Symptoms of Covid-19

Coronavirus disease may be classified into mild, moderate, severe and critical [Alvarez, P. 2020]. Infected patient have common cold, while few of them remain asymptomatic and 80 % patient shows mild symptoms of the disease [SARS-CoV-2, 2020]. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever (98.6%), fatigue (69.6%), dry cough, and diarrhea [SARS-CoV-2, 2020]. These infections include dry cough, nasal congestion, sore throat, mild fever, muscle pain, headache and malaise [ Barranco 2020]. The less common symptoms are dizziness, diarrhea, nausea, headache and vomiting [SARS-CoV-2, 2020]. The corona virus patients with mild illness may present with symptoms of an upper respiratory tract viral infection [SARS-CoV-2, 2020]. However, adult have the best immunity against the COVID-19 infection but the demerit is that they are more likely to spread the infection [SARS-CoV-2, 2020]. A recent study in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University has been identified among 140 patients that different types of symptom are lead to disease known as COVID-19 [Brummet, Q. 2014]. The risk of COVID-19 infection in pregnant woman is the same like general patients but as pregnancy is a state of immune suppression along with other physiological respiratory and immune changes might show more severe symptoms. The greatest risk of Coronavirus is in infected pregnant woman when she is in labor, especially if she is acutely ill. Hafeez et al. [Brummet, Q. 2014] has been reported that 99% of the COVID-19 patients develop a fever with extremely high temperature, while more than half experienced fatigue, dry cough and one-third of the patient developed a dry cough and difficulty in breathing. Bendix, [Brummet, Q. 2014] has been reported that Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) observes that around 80% of the COVID-19 cases are mild, around 15% of the patients have infected severe cases, and 5% have become critically ill. In the infected persons starting from first day of the symptom, the patient suffers from fever along with [Cliff, N. (1988] fatigue, muscle pain, and a dry cough. Few of them may experience nausea and diarrhea a few days before the arousal of symptoms. After fifth days patient may suffer from breathing problem especially if they are elderly or have some pre-existing health condition. According to the Wuhan University study after seventh day all these symptoms lead the patient to be admitted in the hospital. According to Chinese CDC in 15% patient after eight days develop acute respiratory distress syndrome and fluid fills in the lungs which causes severe effects. After tenth day in patients milder symptoms probably have loss of appetite and more abdominal pain. However, COVID19 patients with preexisting comorbidities have a higher case fatality rate. These comorbidities include respiratory disease (6.5%), diabetes (7.3%), hypertension (6%), cardiovascular disease (10.5%), [UNESCO.org] and oncological complications (5.6%). Patient without comorbidities have a lowest case fatality rate (0.9%) [SARS-CoV-2020] only small fractions are (mortality rate about 2%) die. However, the fatality rate are started to increase for those over 50 years of age. Those under 50 years who are infected have a death rate 0.40%, while for those 50-59 years its death rate is 1.3%. For those 60-69 years its 3.60%, for 70 to 79 years olds its 8.0% and for those over 80 years of age, it is 14.8% [UNESCO.org]. After two and a half weeks (17 days) patients who recover are discharged from the hospital [UNESCO.org].

Diagnosis of Covid-19

A suspected case of COVID-19 is defined as one with fever, cough and sore throat who has history of travel to infected areas or other areas of persistent local transmission or contact with patients with similar travel history or those with confirmed Coronavirus infected [Holcombe, M. 2020]. Therefore, infected peoples can be diagnosis on the basis of the common symptoms of COVID-19. The initial cases of Coronavirus infection in India testing strategy was included people who had international travel history with symptoms, symptomatic contacts of laboratory confirmed, and symptomatic healthcare workers managing respiratory distress/severe acute respiratory illness [Holcombe, M. 2020].

However, cases may be asymptomatic or even without fever. A confirmed case is a suspect case with a positive molecular test [Perlman, S 2020]. The doctor may decide whether to conduct tests for COVID-19 which based on individual signs and symptoms. The doctor may also consider whether an individual had close contact with someone diagnosed with COVID-19 or travelled to or lived in any areas with ongoing community spread of Coronavirus within last 14 days [Perlman, S 2020]. The specific diagnosis of COVID-19 can be done by specific molecular test on respiratory samples such as throat swab, sputum, nasopharyngeal swab, endotracheal aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage [Perlman, S 2020]. Till now, COVID-19 infection was not confirmed in urine and fecal sample of the patients [WHO 2020 report]. The World health organization recommended that collecting samples from both lower and upper respiratory tracts it can be achieved through expectorated sputum, endotracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage [WHO 2020 report]. A paper-based test that may deliver results in less than half an hour. In this test a strip of paper required that is coated with antibodies this bind to a particular (COVID-19) protein. However, a second antibody is attached to gold nanoparticles, and therefore the patient’s sample is added to a solution of these particles. Then the test strip is dipped in this solution. If the viral protein (COVID-19) is present in the sample, it will be attached to the antibodies on the paper strip as well as the nanoparticles bound with antibodies, and a colored spot appear on the strip within 20 minutes (WHO 2020 report). These collected samples from respiratory tracts are then assessed for viral-RNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). If test result is positive, it is recommended to repeat test for the re-verification purposes. Whereas, negative test with a strong clinical suspicion also warrants for repeat testing [WHO 2020 report].

Preventive Measures Against Covid-19

According to general guidelines of WHO, COVID-19 infected patient should be separate from other family member in a single separate room, implementation of contact, droplet precaution, and airborne precaution, keeps physical distances till to recovering [WHO 2020 report]. European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has been published the information to people for avoid contact with sick people, in particular those with a cough. Avoid visiting markets and places where live or dead animals are handled, wash your hand with soap and water or use an alcohol based disinfectant solution before eating, after using the toilet and after any contact with animal, avoid contact with animals, their excretions or droppings [WHO 2020 report]. It is essential to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 use the standard precautions which consist of hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and respiratory and cough etiquettes [WHO 2020 report]. Hand washing following the correct steps with soap and water should suffice, sanitizer should be alcohol based which containing 60-80 per cent ethanol, cloth towels should be avoided for drying hands and disposable tissue papers should be preferred [WHO 2020 report]. The personal protective equipment (PPE) consist of the medical masks or particulate respirators, goggles or face shields, gloves, gowns and shoes cover [WHO 2020 report]. Therefore, prevention from COVID-19 should be strictly fallow social distancing and uses personal protective equipment and sanitizer.

Covid-19 Therapy

Till now not any appropriate therapy of the COVID19, but sum therapies are in the clinical trial stages. Several clinical trials of the possible treatment of Coronavirus are underway which are based on antiviral, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs, cell therapy, antioxidants and other therapies [WHO 2020 report]. However, there are no any evidences that antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent bacterial superinfection, and indeed no evidences of a diagnostic role of procalcitonin in COVID-19 patients [UNESCO 2020]. The anticoagulation therapy is recommended in COVID-19 patients with early-stage, especially  when the D-dimer value is 4 time higher than normal. In the second-generation antiretroviral drug combination lopinavir/ritonavir inhibits the viral protease. These combinations are widely available and drug interaction and safety profile are well established. The efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir against SARSCoV has been demonstrated [UNESCO 2020], and these drugs are also seemed to reduce the viral load in COVID-19 patient [26,27]. However, the clinical evidence for this combination therapy is remains limited, as suggested by case reports [UNESCO 2020]. Cao et al. [ 2020] observed no clinical benefit of lopinavir/ritonavir beyond standard care. In China remdesivir was successfully used in the several cases of COVID-19 patient [UNESCO 2020]. However, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are used in the treatment of the amoebiasis and malaria. These drugs show a good tolerability profile. The various studies have been demonstrated that chloroquine activity in vitro and in animal models against SARS-CoV [32,33] and avian influenza [Huang, C.; Wang et al 2020], some studies also have the evidences of their efficacy in COVID-19 patients. The suggested dosages are 500 mg BID for the chloroquine and 200 mg BID for hydroxychloroquine. For the optimal treatment, a loading dose should be administered and followed by a maintenance dose. In highly COVID-19 infected patient’s oxygen therapy will be required if hypoxia is present or if symptoms of respiratory distress become evident. However, oxygen therapy is generally administered through a nasal cannula, a face mask or noninvasive ventilation. Therefore, on the basis of partial positive result in treatment of COVID-19, common drugs like lopinavir, ritonavir, remdesivir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine can be used for prevention till to perfect medicines/ vaccinations. Huang, C.; Wang et al 2020

Global Responses to Coronavirus Pandemic

A proactive response is critical to the containment of any disease outbreak, but the coronavirus took the world by surprise and most countries were not prepared initially for the pandemic, including the world powers. Shortly after the outbreak of COVID-19, the World Health Organization (W.H.O) issued guidelines and updates on how to mitigate the spread of the pandemic, and thereafter, many countries adopted different measures in addition to the W.H.O guidelines to contain the spread of the disease. There were lockdowns in most parts of the world, and people were asked to work from home. Some countries even deployed their military to enforce coronavirus restrictions, and to reduce the number of covidiots. There were increased demands for health equipment including, protective gowns, sanitizers, face masks and hand gloves. Countries like the United States and the U.K also opened their visitation doors for medical professionals such as doctors and nurses who were working or willing to treat the effects of COVID-19. Also, large gatherings and sporting activities were suspended at both local and international levels. Big sporting events like the prestigious European Champions League games were played behind closed doors before they were suspended. Global responses to Coronavirus pandemic were varied from country to country, but most countries endorsed the closure of school strategy as a means to contain the spread of COVID-19. Some selected COVID-19 responses across the world particularly as it relates to the closure of schools due to Coronavirus are highlighted below: In the United States, many schools were closed down, and scheduled tests and examinations were also cancelled. The report shows that some of the schools closed down for Coronavirus in the U.S might not resume back for the rest of the academic year (Madeline, 2020). New York and the California States were among the worst-hit states in the U.S and the number of cases increased steadily despite strong measures put in place by both the federal and state governments to contain the pandemic. At a point, the country surpassed China in the number of cases of Coronavirus, but the country is determined to defeat the pandemic. School closures in the U.S affected over 60 million students in the country. In Spain, about 11 million students were affected by school closures for mitigation of the spread of Coronavirus. Regional governments in the country closed down schools in response to the increased cases of Coronavirus in the country. The closure of schools in Spain particularly in Madrid led to the suspension of job contracts for people who work at school cafeterias and in special education (El Pais, 2020). The closure of schools in Spain was very necessary considering that the country lost 849 people in a day due to Coronavirus. In Saudi Arabia, Middle East Monitor (2020), reported that schools and universities across the kingdom were ordered to close down for Coronavirus by the Ministry of Education. The government however, directed that “Virtual schools and distance education be activated to ensure that the educational process continues in an effective and quality manner”. In Australia, Michael (2020) reported that dozens of independent schools were shutdown at New South Wales while some moved to online classes. Students learn from home, while some schools were opened but implemented strong measures to ensure social distancing strategy. The opening of schools amidst the coronavirus pandemic was backed by the Australian government. The Prime Minister openly announced that schools remained open because the government believes that “children are at very low risk from coronavirus, and the closing of schools could have crippling effects on their health sector and the economy”. The government cited solid health case for keeping schools open, but teachers and parents were worried (ABC News, 2020). The country also banned outdoor gathering of more than 2 people, while 18 billion dollars was also approved to mitigate the spread and effects of the Coronavirus. In Italy, schools were shutdown indefinitely, and the military were deployed to help enforce restrictions. However, despite the measures put in place by the government towards curbing the spread of Coronavirus, the country became an epicenter for the outbreak and recorded 969 coronavirus deaths in a single day. In India, all schools and educational institutions were closed down and the government imposed “Janata” Curfew which restricted all citizens to stay at home to contain the spread of Coronavirus. The police also went round some cities to create public awareness about the pandemic. In France, the government ordered the closure of all schools in a televised broadcast by President Macron. The measure was in response to the increased health crisis in the country due to coronavirus. The country was badly affected just like their counterparts in many parts of the world. The Coronavirus were reported to have originated from Wuhan, China and it was the epicenter at the beginning of the outbreak. Schools and other public institutions were shutdown to mitigate the spread of the virus. The closure of schools and other measures put in place by the government proved effective and the pandemic was contained to a large extent. The country also closed its borders with some neighbouring countries. In Iran, the government closed all schools as part of the preventive measures to halt the spread of coronavirus. Although, the country was among the epicenter of the coronavirus outbreak, and the death tolls in the country were high. The coronavirus increased Iran’s economic problems, having been faced with economic sanctions from the West earlier. In Senegal, schools were shutdown to limit the spread of COVID-19. The country was the first sub-Saharan African country to close down schools due to coronavirus. In South Africa, the government directed all schools to close down in response to the coronavirus pandemic. This is in addition to the prohibition of social gatherings of more than 100 people. New cases were reported in the country and campaigns for behavioral changes were carried out to reduce the spread of the disease. In Germany, schools were shutdown in response to the spread of coronavirus. The death rate due to coronavirus was reported to be low compared to their neighbours. The country also earmarked more than 800 billion dollars to fight the pandemic. In Russia, Schools were shutdown, and several other measures were taken to halt the pandemic. The death toll for coronavirus in Russia was reported to be low, but measures were put in place to contain the pandemic. In Nigeria, the federal government ordered a total close down of all schools. The decision was largely applauded, and the National University Commission (NUC), a regulatory body for all universities in Nigeria also gave a follow-up directive to all universities in the country to shutdown. The government also suspended social gatherings, and workers were asked to work from home. An Italian who was reported to be the first case of coronavirus in Nigeria was successfully treated and discharged according to the government, but new cases emerged thereafter. Thus, the country needs to do more in terms of disaster preparedness and response. In Ghana, schools were shutdown to contain the spread of coronavirus disease. The government also released 100 million US dollars to enhance the fight against the pandemic. The country reacted proactively to contain the spread of the Virus. In Madagascar, the country has recorded zero COVID-19 death so far, and the country has claimed a breakthrough in Herbal medicine for COVID-19 treatment. However, the WHO issued warned that such claim has not been scientifically approved and cannot be recommended by the organization as cure for COVID-19. It is important to note that while many countries were shutting down schools, some others like Singapore, Sweden, Brazil, and Australia kept their schools open as a kind of strategy to contain the contagion. The untimely closure of schools was good supportive measures to contain the spread of the disease, but it also had some adverse consequences on millions of students globally who were faced with multiple challenges in their education.

Impact of coronavirus on the travel industry

The coronavirus outbreak led the governments of many countries to impose restrictions on nonessential travel to countries affected by COVID-19, indefinitely suspending tourism travel, work visas and immigrant visas. Some countries placed a complete travel ban on all forms of inward or outward travel, shutting down all airports in the country (Bialek, et al., 2020). At the height of the coronavirus pandemic, most airplanes flew almost empty due to mass passenger cancellations. The travel restrictions imposed by governments subsequently led to the reduction in the demand for all forms of travel which forced some airlines to temporarily suspend operations.

In the first two months since the global lockdown went into effect, the Nigerian travel industry lost more than N180 billion and thousands of jobs, according to Bankole Bernard, Chief Executive Officer of Finchglow Travels Limited/FCm Nigeria and former President, National Associations of Nigerian Travel Agencies (NANTA). “Since the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, ticket sales and packages have gone down significantly which makes it difficult to meet our bi-monthly payment obligation to IATA. The growing fear is that more than 50% of the travel and tourism business may likely collapse and more jobs will be lost if this continues and many travel agents lose their accreditations because they are unable to make payments,” said Kayode Adeshola, Executive Director, Capstone Travels and Tours in Abuja (Azhar et al., 2020).

Impact of Coronavirus on the hospitality industry

Restaurant businesses have been affected during the pandemic mainly through the government announced ‘stay-at-home policy’ and ‘social distancing’ movement restriction imposed by the government in many countries. This led to rapid shutdowns in cities and states to control the spread of the coronavirus, which threw many restaurants and hotels across the country into sudden shock. It is no secret that the hospitality industry is one of the sectors that have been hit the hardest by the COVID-19 pandemic, with many of the employees either out of work or losing hours due to travel restrictions, the shutdown of businesses, and social distancing. The hotels have been experiencing very low patronage. Restaurant executives laid off staff as they shut down their businesses temporarily. Many customers stayed at home, preferring to eat cooked meals at home. Some restaurant executives criticized the government for imposing the stay-at-home and social distancing policy which destroyed many small restaurants and pub businesses in Gwarinpa, Abuja, Nigeria.

Impact of Coronavirus on the sport industry

The sports industry was severely affected during the coronavirus outbreak. In the football segment, major European football leagues in England and Scotland announced the immediate suspension of football matches for 6 weeks until 30th April.

With the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases growing astronomically around the world and resumption of sporting activities, which is not near in sight, it is imperative to consider the effect of the pandemic on the industry, Nigerian sporting environment and ways to increase sports productivity locally. On the Nigeria Premier League, Oma (2020) believes that it has not been able to live up to expectations, despite having a handful of Nigerians born football stars making it in Europe and other parts of the world. app Oma said, “Honestly, Nigeria is not taking any strategic step to make sports an active economic driver, like other parts of the world.” He made comparisons with other parts of the world where sports business spins in large income. “In Germany, for example, 56,081 people were employed either directly or indirectly in the Bundesliga or Bundesliga 2 in the 2018/2019 season,” he added.

Impact of Coronavirus on the National and International Shifts in trade and investments 

National and international shifts in investments would also pay large dividends for COVID-19 control. There is considerable evidence that the developing world will struggle to feed its growing populations due to the poverty trap of infectious disease (Molyneux and Hotez, 2005). However, ample evidence also suggests that this trap could be broken via investments in health infrastructure and preventive chemotherapy (Ngonghala et al, 2017). Curing COVID-19 has the added benefit of potentially reducing the nutritional needs of cured individuals by stopping the feeding of their parasites.

Impact of Coronavirus on the health industry 

The coronavirus imposes a substantial burden for the patient and the society in terms of direct and indirect costs related to medical care, disability, early mortality, and negative employment consequences, such as loss of productivity due to presenteeism and absenteeism. Economic cost of illness-related productivity losses can be significant. These costs can create barriers in access to services, affect health outcomes and contribute to the financial burden of households. On the other hand, direct nonmedical costs, such as food, accommodation and travel costs incurred when searching for and accessing health care services, may also be significant. Studies such as Olivera & Buitrago (2020) have suggested that a health policy framework addressing as many of the social determinants of health as possible may be crucial in containing such social costs.

2.2 Theoretical review

This study is hinged on the Rational Choice Theory. The Rational Choice Theory also is known as the Choice theory is an economic principle that assumes that individual always make prudent and logical decisions that provide them with the highest and personal benefits or satisfaction. The theory is based on the assumption that individual tries to actively maximize their advantage in any situation and therefore consistently try to minimize their losses (Wikipedia, 2020). In this study, this theory was used to understand and provide a rationale for private businesses decision to shut down of operation as a result of COVID-19 pandemic. Owners of private businesses have the main goal of profit maximization, and as a result of the scourge of the global pandemic, this goal may not be achieved. The shutting down of businesses will harm their performance (financial and non-financial performance). The financial performance of private businesses will be negatively affected as a result of low patronage due to the lockdown in the country. Sales decline would occur, which would lead to low profit. Against the backdrop of low patronage, owners of private businesses are left with no choice than to lay off staff. This implies that the staff would lose their jobs.


Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: [email protected].


Disclaimer: This PDF Material Content is Developed by the copyright owner to Serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for Students to Conduct Academic Research.

You are allowed to use the original PDF Research Material Guide you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the project topic.

2. As a source for ideas for you own academic research work (if properly referenced).

3. For PROPER paraphrasing ( see your school definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase).

4. Direct citing ( if referenced properly).

Thank you so much for your respect for the authors copyright.

Do you need help? Talk to us right now: (+234) 08060082010, 08107932631 (Call/WhatsApp). Email: [email protected].

Welcome! My name is Damaris I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.