Effect Of Covid 19 Shocks On Crop Productivity And Households Poverty Status In Osun State
The Coronavirus pandemic outbreak that hit Wuhan China is described as the largest outbreak in history. The pandemic causing devastating effects on human beings, economic activities and food security in these countries The magnitude and extent of these activities have been speculative especially that of food security. This study reports study that investigated the magnitudes of the impact of Coronavirus scourge on crop productivity and household poverty status. The study was conducted in Osun state. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the two LGA. Propulsive random sampling technique was adapted to select the farmers. A questionnaire comprising four scales was employed to collect data from 160 (150 farmers and 10 extension workers) community members selected from 15 communities in these two LGA. The findings of the research revealed that most of the farmers were in their socio-economically active age, ranging from 36 to 55 years. The study further showed that post–planting activities- fencing, hunting, bird scaring (28.8%) and crop harvesting (61.3%) were most severely affected by the Coronavirus outbreak in communities. Further still, it revealed that the disease outbreak to a very great extent decreased food affordability and financing (99.4%), food availability, storage and protection (98.1%), processing and preservation, marketing, and food accessibility (97.5%). The major recommendation based on the findings was that: Government and other donor bodies should consider the deteriorating trend of farmers’ health and food security to give them priority in time of the after- Coronavirus rehabilitation.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO:REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Review
2.3 Empirical Review
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection
3.6 Data Analysis Technique
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 Demographic Description of Data
4.2 Data Analysis
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Discussion of findings
1.1 Background to the study
In December 2019, an outbreak of respiratory illness is emerging caused by a novel (new) coronavirus (named “2019-nCoV”) that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which continues to expand. Chinese health officials have reported tens of thousands of infections with 2019-nCoV in China, with the virus reportedly spreading from person-to-person in parts of that country. Infections with 2019-nCoV, most of them associated with travel from Wuhan, also are being reported in a growing number of international locations. At the time of this writing, Worldometer1 reported 28,726 confirmed 2019-nCoV incidents of which 3,826 are in critical condition, 565 died, and 1,170 recovered, affecting 28 countries and territories around the world (Worldometer, 2020).
WHO is estimated that the novel coronavirus’ case fatality rate has been estimated at around 2 percent (WHO, 2020), substantially lower than Middle East Respiratory Syndrome MERS (34 percent) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS (10 percent)(Worldometer, 2020). The incubation period of the virus may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 (World Health Organization (WHO): 2-10 days; China’s National Health Commission (NHC): 2-14 days; The United States’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 10-14 days), during which the virus is contagious but the patient does not display any symptom (asymptomatic transmission). All population groups can be infected by the 2019-nCoV, however, seniors and people with pre-existing medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease) appear to be more vulnerable to becoming severely ill with the virus. 2019-nCoV infected patients are the main infection sources. However, we also should attach importance to asymptomatic cases which may play a critical role in the transmission process. Respiratory droplets and contact are the main transmission routes. Close contact with symptomatic cases and asymptomatic cases with silent infection are the main transmission routes of 2019-nCoV infection in children. People of all ages are susceptible to 2019-nCoV. The elderly and those with underlying chronic diseases are more likely to become severe cases. Thus far, all pediatric cases with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection were mild cases, and no deaths had been reported.
Data from adults reveal that severe cases often develop dyspnea one week after disease onset. Severe cases may rap- idly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis, and coagulation dysfunction. Although no deaths in children have been reported up to now, the potential risk of death should be highlighted. Though clinical symptoms in pediatric patients are relatively milder compared with those in adult patients, ARDS and death cases also occurred in infected children during the SARS and MERS epidemics. Differential diagnosis should be made to distinguish from influenza virus, para-influenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, SARS coronavirus, and other known viral infections, as well as mycoplasma pneumoniae and chlamydia pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia. The coinfection of 2019-nCoV with other viruses and/or bacteria should be considered in diagnosis.
Beyond the public health impacts of regional or global emerging and endemic infectious disease events lay wider socioeconomic consequences that are often not considered in risk or impact assessments. Endemic infectious deseases set in motion a complex chain of events in the economy. They are rare and extreme events, highly diverse and volatile over time and across countries. Estimating terrorism risk depends upon several factors that varied by the type of activity. The idiosyncratic nature of endemic infectious diseases is based, among others, on the magnitude and duration of the event, the size and state of the local economy, the geographical locations affected, the population density and the time of the day they occurred. If the calculation of costs associated with death loss, chronically ill cattle marketed prematurely at a discount, and treatment are are readily traceable. the estimation of indirect costs such as reduced performance of the local labor force and/or the impact on the international travel and trade can be an onerous task
World Bank Report (2020) states that beyond the toll of human lives and suffering, the pandemic currently affecting the world is already having measurable economic impact in terms of forgone outputs. The report further intimated that the outbreak has caused higher fiscal deficits and prices; lower real household incomes and greater poverty. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) also stated that these economic impacts include costs of health care and foregone productivity of those farmers directly affected. The government declared a Public Health Emergency, involving heightened control measures including limitations on internal movement, health inspections at borders, mobilization of all health and security/defense personnel, increased restrictions on both suspected cases and contacts undergoing tracing, and ban on movement of corpses.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Restrictions on movement negatively impacted not only household income but also availability of food within households. For example, the closure of markets, especially the weekly markets because of fear of infection curtailed food trade and this caused supply shortages (punch 2020). According to Glennerster and Suri (2020), at least 40% of the farmers in Osun either abandoned their farms or moved to new safer locations or died, leaving the farms unattended to. The report also indicated that about 90 percent of the plots in the inland valley swamps were not cultivated. The major producers of staple food and to some extent even the cash crops in Osun are the smallholder farmers, who make up 80-85% of the rural population and depend on farming for their livelihood (NBS, 2020). It was their economic activities that were halted; and their numbers suffered the highest. Yet, the necessary data that would show the impact of COVID-19 on farm activities, farm productivities, household food security and economic security in farming communities is scanty. Also, there is a general perception that what is reported by government about the pandemic in the national and international media is not the true reflection of situation on the ground. Thus, interventions by the government, NGOs, and International Parties would not be well targeted. The purpose of this study therefore, to investigate the effect of covid-19 on farm productivity from the farmers and food security. It is hoped that results of this study would forecast what the food security situation would be like after the corona virus crisis. The government and NGOs and the international organizations may find such data useful for after reconstruction planning.
1.3 Objective of the study
The main objectives were to examine the effect of covid 19 shocks on crop productivity and households poverty status in Osun State. Specifically, the study aims to:
- Identify the demographic and socioeconomic status of the selected farmers;
- Identify the different farming activities that were severely affected by the Coronavirus outbreak
- Determine the extent of the impact of Coronavirus outbreak on crop productivity
- Determine the extent to which reduced farm productivity affected household food security within the study area.
1.4 Significance of the study
The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways. COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment. People who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death.
This study will impact the effect of the 2019 novel Coronavirus pandemic on the economy of Nigeria state and the factors associated with knowledge of Coronavirus.
The study findings will provide recommendations for policy makers on the sustainable strategies to address coronavirus pandemic and vulnerability impacts in areas prone to the effects of the pandemic. In addition, the study will contribute to efforts of the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSRGP) with particular reference to agricultural sector and sustainable food security in the country.
1.5 Research Question
Following the research objectives the research question were answered by the study
- What is the demographic and socioeconomic status of the selected farmers?
- What are the different farming activities that were severely affected by the Coronavirus outbreak?
- What is the extent of the impact of Coronavirus outbreak on crop productivity?
- To what extent does the reduced farm productivity affected household food security within the study area?
1.6 Scope and Limitations
Research covered the effect of coronavirus pandemic on the production and productivity of grown crops (both food and cash crops), livestock, and fish. The research also included other socio-economic activities which contribute to food and livelihood security in the area. The study was conducted in Osun state. On the other hand, adaptive capacity of the individual households and community were investigated.
Limitations encountered during the study were low level of daily income which inhibited some of resource weak head of households to participate in household’s interviews and focus group discussions as most of them had been engaged in cash and food labor to struggle for their survival, they had no time to share experiences and opinions with research team. The research team encountered a problem of getting prices and sales data for cotton, paddy, and chickpeas from village cooperatives as most of farmers sold these commodities to private companies which are not submitted data to the village authorities.
1.7 Structure of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter One presents the problem and its context, while Chapter Two provides literature review. Chapter Three described research methodology used in the study, whilst Chapter Four gives results and discussion. Chapter Five presents conclusion and recommendations of the study.[email protected][email protected]