Perceived Barriers To Talent Identification Of Human Kinetics And Beth Education Students Among Athletes Of The University Of Ibadan
This research work was on Perceived barriers to talent identification of Human kinetics and beth education students among athletes of the university of Ibadan. Sport talent identification and development has become an interesting area of sport science research and the need to explore the basic fundamentals of this process necessitated the need for this preliminary investigation in Nigeria with the view to develop an ideal sport talent identification and development model that could be used for future recruitment and selection of young potential athletes. The population for this study was drawn from the university of Ibadan. The research adopted the ex-post facto research design in the conduct of this study. The data collected for the research was subjected to statistical analysis in which descriptive statistics involving frequency count, percentages for the analysis of the demographic characteristics mean, standard deviation and standard error was computed for each of the item in the instrument to answer the research questions. The study found out that, there was no significant perceived barriers to the talent identification in the University of Ibadan. However, it was found out that there was a significant perceived barriers to the development of elitism in the University of Ibadan hence, It was therefore, recommended that a joint monitoring committee involving students and staff of tertiary institutions, and members of the host communities be set up to encourage greater participation of both members of the tertiary institutions and those of the host communities. Through this, the tertiary institutions will influence sports participation in Nigeria. Youths and other members of the host communities should make all sports facilities in the tertiary institutions open for use. The government and the tertiary institutions should award scholarship to students and youths in the host communities who excel in competitive sports. This would enable them to study courses of their choice as means of motivation to take to elite sports.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.0 Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Theoretical Frame work
1.3 Statement of the Problem
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Purpose of the Study
1.6 Basic Assumptions
1.8 Significance of the Study
2.0 Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature
2.2 Concept of Development/Sports Development
2.3 History and Development of Sports
2.4 History and Development of Sports in Nigeria
2.5 Sports in primary and secondary schools in Nigeria
2.6 Sports Participation
2.7 Elitism in Sports
2.8 Sports in Nigeria‘s tertiary Institutions
2.9 Sporting Culture in Nigeria
3.0 Research Methodology
3.2 Research Design
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure
3.5.2 Validation of Instrument
3.5.3 Pilot Study
3.5.5 Result of Pilot Study
3.6 Administration of questionnaire
3.7 Statistical Techniques
4.0 Results and Discussion
4.2 Presentation of bio-data variables
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
1.1 Background of the Study
The identification and development of talents in sport is a combination of factors which notably depends on genetics, environment, opportunity, and motivation as well as the effect of these identified variables on the psychological, physical and physiological traits of the young individual. Over the years, the identification and development of talents have been of major interest in sport science research (Vaeyens et al. 2008; Spamer 2009; Vaeyens et al. 2009; MacDonald 2009; Cote 1999; Bann et al. 1996; Borms, 1994; Bompa, 1985).
Talent identification and development programmes in sport are design to identify young individuals with extraordinary potentials for future success in higher level sport participation, as well as to select and recruit these young individuals into talent promotion programmes. The
purpose of these talent identification and development programs according to Vaeyens et al. (2009) is to increase athletes potentials by means of a variety of measures designed to accelerate talent development. The measures includes among others high profile coaching, scientific and medical interventions, high level training and competitions, counselling and good social support as well as effective time management.
Talent identification and development procedures have traditionally been categorised into natural and scientific selection methods (Bompa 1999; 1994). The focus of the natural setting is on the young individual who is already into sport. The involvement of the young individuals in sport is as a result of the opportunity sets (such as influence of parents, peers, siblings and
proximity of facilities), these will naturally make indentification of talents easily possible. The scientific approach is a process of measurement and evaluation procedure using a set of criteria to identify the physical, psychological and physiological traits possess by a would be young
athlete. This is normally referred to as talent detection. The advantage of the scientific approach according to Williams and Reilly (2000) is the objectivity that it provides and the facilitation of the application of scientific training for the development of the athletes. This process will further motivate the sport scientists who were involved in the identification and detection process to continue to apply scientific training techniques on the athletes.
A clear cut theoretical framework to really describe the concept of talent is lacking because of its extreme complex nature. A key premise for this lack of consensus according to Vaeyens (2008) is the perennial debate regarding the relative contribution of nature and nurture in the
development of talent. However, it is notworthy to discuss two models which to a very Large
extent are appropriate for this study. The first is the Bloom’s (1985) talent development which is holistic in nature with its approach. This model consist of three stages which are initiation,
development and perfection. This model interestingly was developed through structured interview with elite olympic swimmers and tennis players as well as non-sport participants such as mathematicians, pianists and surgeons. It incorporates transitions, and characterises the stages of development by the completion of certain tasks, the development of relationships or attitudes and the achievement of learning and not by chronological age.
The National Union of Nigeria students in the late 1950s comprising of Universities, the Polytechnics, Colleges of Education and the Advance Teachers‘ Colleges, which are
tertiary institutions of learning, gave impetus to joint sporting activities. This later developed into the Nigeria University Games (NUGA), the Nigeria Polytechnic Games (NIPOGA) and the Nigeria Advanced Teachers‘ College and Colleges of Education Games Association (NATCEGA) now known as Nigeria Colleges of Education Games Association (NICEGA). Like their foreign counterparts, these Nigeria institutions have been very active in sporting activities in the country through their participation in the various association games, the
National Sport Festivals, West African University Games, All Africa Games and many others
1.2 Theoretical Framework
The Psychological theory of ―planned behaviour‖ propounded by Ajzen in 1985 as an
extension of the theory of reasoned and action, which states that personal attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control, together shape an individual‘s intentions and behaviour, is the theoretical framework upon which this study is based. Sport participation is therefore a planned behaviour aimed at attaining personal or communal goals. It is a deliberate action reasoned toward tailoring the behaviour of a particular population toward a specified direction for achieving some specific goals. The theory of planned behaviour specifies the nature of relationships between beliefs and attitudes. According to these models, people‘s evaluations of or attitudes toward behaviour are determined by their accessible beliefs about the behaviour, where a belief is defined as the subjective probability that the behaviour will produce certain out come. Specifically, the evaluation of each outcome contributes to the attitude in direct proportion to the person‘s subjective possibility that the behaviour produces the outcome in question (Fishbone & Ajzen, 1975).
It has often been argued that Physical activity and sports, health and quality of life are closely interconnected since the human body was designed to move and therefore needs regular physical activity in order to function optimally and avoid illness. It has been proved by scholars (Coleman, 1961; Hartmann, 2008) that a sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for the development of many chronic illnesses, including cardiovascular diseases, a main cause of death in the Western world including the developing nations. Furthermore, living an active life according to (Trudeau & Shepard, 2008) brings many other social and psychological benefits and there is a direct link between physical activity as planned behaviour and life expectancy, so that physically active populations tend to live longer than inactive ones. They further maintained that sedentary people who become more physically active report feeling better from both a physical and a mental point of view, and enjoy a better quality of life. Hanks & Eckland (1976) also submitted that the human body, because of regular physical activity, undergoes morphological and functional changes, which can prevent or delay the appearance of certain illnesses and improve our capacity for physical effort. At present, there is sufficient evidence to show that those who live a physically active life can gain a number of health benefits, including the following:
- A reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.
- Prevention and/or delay of the development of arterial hypertension, and improved control of arterial blood pressure in individuals who suffer from high blood pressure.
- Good cardio-pulmonary function.
- Maintained metabolic functions and low incidence of type 2 diabetes.
- Increased fat utilisation, which can help to control weight, lowering the risk of obesity.
- A lowered risk of certain cancers, such as breast, prostate and colon cancer.
- Improved mineralization of bones in young ages, contributing to the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in older ages.
- Improved digestion and regulation of the intestinal rhythm.
- Maintenance and improvement in muscular strength and endurance, resulting in an increase in functional capacity to carry out activities of daily living.
- Maintained motor functions including strength and balance.
- Maintained cognitive functions and lowered risk of depression and dementia.
- Lower stress levels and associated improved sleep quality.
- Improved self-image, self-esteem, increased enthusiasm, and optimism.
- Decreased absenteeism (sick leave) from work.
- In very old adults, a lower risk of falling and prevention or delaying of chronic illnesses associated with ageing.
These benefits/reasons motivated a planned behavioural pattern to achieve these great health values as belief by the individual or the entire community. According to theorists like Green & Houlihan, (2005) the promotion of mass participation in sport, as a form of physical activity, is now firmly on the public policy agenda in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.(1). The health and well-being of citizens form part of popular discourse, evidenced by repeated references to “obesity” epidemics in the media and indicated by the establishment of new policies, policy agents, or a refocusing of previous efforts to address this issue. For example, in some developed countries of the world, (United State, Germany, France, Japan, South Korea) a new central government Ministry for Public Health has been established to work in partnership with the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, the Department for Communities and Local Government, the Department for Transport, the Department for Education and Skills, and sports delivery bodies to raise participation. This is indicative of a more general pattern in most economies though tensions in policy priorities do exist. The propositions of these theorists form the basis upon which the present study is predicated.
1.3 Statement of the problem
In the early centuries when university authorities particularly in England were against participation in sports by university students believing what matters was scholarship, students have not always shared the faculties‘ devotion to exclusive philosophy of scholarship and university students continued to play games and sports sporadically in defiance of restrictions and under threat of punishment ( Kabido, 2001). However, the concept of scholarship before other things as preferred by the university authorities did not go too far when the wind of mass sport participation blew across Europe and other parts of the world because of the industrial revolution and world wars in the later century. The persistent attitude of students towards sports participation in Europe and the United States has been responsible for the development of sports that led to good organisation and participation in games and sports among institutions of higher learning in Europe and the United States between the sixteen and eighteenth centuries. This attitude of European and American students toward sports has greatly influenced the general public participation in sports in the United States and European countries (Bitrus, 2005). It is amusing that the university authorities who vehemently opposed anything to do with students participation in sports in the early centuries are now in the fore front encouraging university and college students to participate actively in sports. Today, Students of tertiary institutions in Europe, the United States and other parts of the world are known to have contributed significantly to the development of sports in their respective countries with respect to sports participation and elitist sport. This development was a credit to the students for their roles in creation of sports clubs that did not only benefit the students but the public at large. In addition, students in Britain created awareness for participation in sports as it was attested that wherever a British graduate went, he went with his sports (Ahmed 1992; Bitrus, 2005). This is true because it was reported that students who graduated from British institutions took sports to their communities through the establishment of sports clubs. The spread of western sports to Nigeria also came through some British graduates who were sent to serve the colonial administration or the missionaries (Ladani, 2008).
Also in the United States students organised and participated actively in sporting activities, this led to greater awareness and enthusiasm in sport participation among Americans. With the colonisation of most African States, schools were established all over these states. Western sports immediately spread to these schools and continued until date.
The participation of Nigeria institutions in sporting activities has a long history. According to Ladani (2008) it began with Empire day celebration to commemorate the birth of Queen Victoria of England and grew into schools sports where athletic, football and netball competitions were organised for primary, secondary schools and Teacher Training Colleges. With the establishment of a University College in Ibadan in 1948 and other tertiary institutions later, sports became a very serious social activity that dominated the leisure of students in these tertiary institutions (Fafunwa, 1975; Bitrus, 2005).
According to Omoruan (1996; Bitrus 2005) the former National Union of Nigeria Students in the late fifties comprising of Universities, the Polytechnics, Colleges of Education and the Advanced Teachers‘ Colleges gave impetus to their joint sporting activities. However, with the later increase in the number of these institutions and number of students coupled with financial and administrative constraints, it soon became necessary that each should go its own way. As a result, there emerged the Nigeria University Games Association
(NUGA), the Nigeria Polytechnic Games Association (NIPOGA) and Nigeria Colleges of
Education Games Association (NATCEGA). The sporting activities of Nigeria students in the tertiary institutions through these Sports Associations and similar bodies at continental and global level have no doubt projected the sporting might of these students beyond the shores of Nigeria. This situation is believed to have created awareness and enthusiasm for sports participation among Nigerians as was the case with Australia. Apart from the fact that these tertiary institutional sports created an opportunity for interaction, love and exchange of ideas among Nigerian students in the tertiary institutions, it also serves as an avenue for the development of elite sports men and women who aspired for excellence in sports performance. In addition, it also serves as a pool from which the nation‘s national and international athletes and administrators are drawn. Gouws (1997) stated that institutional sports played a dominant role in the development of sports in Nigeria, and that through these institutional sports, athletes for national and international competitions were discovered. On the other hand, students of tertiary institutions have played an important role in the development of sports in Nigeria through their organisations of sports programmes among the various campuses. For instance, NUGA, NIPOGA and NATCEGA, are the products of the Association of Nigeria Students.
Despite these achievements by the Nigeria tertiary institutions in sports it thus appears that the participation of the generality of Nigerians in sports is not encouraging and the development of elite athletes in sports is equally not growing as expected. This is occasioned by the fact that athletes already discovered are being used repeatedly. This seems to be evidenced that the tertiary institutions in Nigeria are no longer influencing sports participation and development of elite athletes in the University of Ibadan as it ought to be. This scenario prompted the researcher to undertake a study on the influence of Nigeria tertiary institutions in the talent identification in the University of Ibadan.
1.4 Research questions:
Based on the above statement of the problem, the following research questions were raised:
- Does Nigeria tertiary institutions influenced the talent identification among Nigerian athletes?
- Do Nigeria tertiary institutions influence the talent identification in
Nigeria sporting culture?
- Does Nigeria tertiary institutions influenced the development of elitism in the University of Ibadan?
- Does Nigeria tertiary institutions influenced the development of sports infrastructure in Nigeria?
1.5 Purpose of the study
To successfully conduct this research, the researcher set forth to achieve the following purposes:
- The study examined whether Nigeria tertiary institutions has significantly influence the talent identification in Nigerian sporting culture.
- This study established whether Nigeria tertiary institutions have influenced the talent identification in the University of Ibadan.
- This study found out whether Nigeria tertiary institutions have significantly
Influence the development of elitism in the University of Ibadan.
- This study found out whether the Nigeria tertiary institutions have
Significantly influence the development of sports infrastructure in Nigeria.
- This research confounds whether Nigeria tertiary institutions have influence the development of interest in sports participation among the youths of Nigeria.
1.6 Basic assumptions:
For the purpose of this research, the following statements of basic assumptions were made:
- That Nigeria tertiary institutions contributes to the development of mass
sports participation and elitism in the University of Ibadan.
- That Nigeria tertiary institutions contributes to the development of mass sport participation in Nigeria.
- That Nigeria tertiary institutions contributes to the development of elite athletes in Nigeria.
- That Nigeria tertiary institutions contributes to the development of sports
infrastructure in Nigeria.
- That Nigeria tertiary institutions contributes to the development of interest in sport participation by Nigeria youths.
- Tertiary institutions influenced the development of interest in sports participation among the youths in Nigeria?
The following hypotheses have been postulated for this study:
Nigeria tertiary institutions have no significant influence on the talent identification in the University of Ibadan.
- Nigeria tertiary institutions have no significant influence on the talent identification in the University of Ibadan.
- Nigeria tertiary institutions have no significant influence on the development of elitism in the University of Ibadan.
- Nigeria tertiary institutions have no significant influence on the development of infrastructure for sports in the University of Ibadan.
- Nigeria tertiary institutions have no significant influence on the development of interest in sports participation by Nigeria youths.
1.8 Significance of the study
At the end of this research, it is hoped that the following values will be brought forth:
- The study can help Nigeria tertiary institutions understand whether they have any influence on the talent identification in the University of Ibadan or not.
- This study can enable Nigerians ascertain the contributions of Nigeria tertiary institutions in the development of elite athletes in Nigeria.
- This research adds to the body of knowledge in the area of sports participation and elitism in the University of Ibadan.
- The study can also help stakeholders in the sport industry understand and appreciate the contributions of Nigeria tertiary institutions in the development of sports in Nigeria with a view to giving more support to sports among the tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
- Through this study, it is hoped that Nigeria public can appreciate the contributions of tertiary institutions in the development of sports in Nigeria.
1.9 Delimitation of the study
This research is delimited to the Perceived barriers to talent identification of Human kinetics and beth education students among athletes of the University of Ibadan.