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Predictive Effects Of Exercise On The Wellbeing Of Undergraduate Students In The University Of Ibadan


This study investigated Predictive effects of exercise on the wellbeing of undergraduate students in the university of Ibadan. Physical activity is considered to be correlated with academic performance of students by many researchers. In recent years this concept is gaining high importance especially in professional education system. This study employed a descriptive survey design method. The study used Taro Yamane formula to estimate a sample size of 87. A questionnaire was distributed to the students and the responses given by them were then analyzed. Results showed that most of the students agreed that there exists a correlation between exercise and academic performance as their scores were higher compared to students who do not involve in exercise. Findings from our study suggest that physical activities increase student’s focus and might help them to succeed academically.




1.1     Background to the study

1.2     Statement of the problem

1.3     Objectives of the study

1.4     Research questions

1.5     Hypothesis

1.6     Significance of the study

1.7     Scope of the study

1.8     Limitation of the study

1.9     Organization of the study



2.1     Concept of exercise

2.2     Types of exercise

2.2.1  Aerobic exercise

2.2.2  Anaerobic exercise

2.3     Health benefits of exercise

2.3.1  Physical fitness

2.3.2  Cardiovascular system

2.3.3  Immune system

2.3.4  Cancer

2.3.5  Neurobiological

2.3.6  Depression

2.3.7  Sleep

2.4     Importance of Physical Activity and Exercise on Brain and Body Functions

2.5     Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise on Academic Success

2.6     Exercise and Academic Performance



3.1     Research design

3.2     Sources of Data

3.3     Population of the study

3.4     Sampling and sampling technique

3.5     Research Instrument

3.6     Reliability

3.7     Validity

3.8     Administration of Instruments

3.9     Method of Data Presentation and Analysis



4.1     Introduction

4.2     Response rate

4.3     Demographic Data

4.4     Analysis of Questions

4.5     Test of Hypothesis

4.6     Discussion



5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendation






1.1     Background to the study

Exercise help students to develop knowledge, attitudes, motor and behavior skills which are required to maintain physically active lifestyle. Since education is considered stressful due to voluminous academics and demands total dedication towards studies, it leaves minimal opportunity for the students to relax and exercise. Because of this, students face social, emotional and physical problems, which in turn may affect their learning ability and academic performance.

A current trend amongst students is a sedentary lifestyle that leads to a lack of motivation, focus, and behavioral issues in school.  Exercise is often lacking in the school day, and studies have shown that increasing the amount of activity can improve many aspects of a person’s well-being.  The curriculum and schedules in schools are often full of academics, and there is little time for activity, but it is important that teachers understand the variety of ways it can be integrated for academic success.  Desai, Kurpad, Chomitz, and Thomas (2015) state that aerobic exercise and activity positively support mental health, influence health behaviors, and is associated with academic achievement.  A student’s cognitive performance in school has the potential to be enhanced through the integration of exercise and exercise into the school day, with or without adding in programs. There are several ways that educators can get the students moving with mathematics problems, taking brain breaks, providing after school exercise programs, and much more.

The link between physical activity and academic performance, however, remains less established.  The relationship has recently been studied more but there is still a limited amount of research on the topic and studies’ findings have been mixed; some have found a positive effect of physical activity on academic performance (Shepard, 1996) and some have found a negative effect (Tremblay, Inman, & Willms, 2000).

Physical activity and exercise are a critical part of everyone’s life, whether the purpose be to maintain current health, become more successful in academic areas, increase aerobic fitness levels, or simply to be happier.  It is important to understand the benefits from a scientific viewpoint as well as an academic perspective for students so that teachers are able to integrate necessary activities into daily routines to benefit the students.  From brain breaks to curriculum driven running programs, there is evidence that shows that exercise in school is critical to the success of students in academics, focus, physical health, and social relationships.

This study is interested in the many positive effects that exercise have on students and wellbeing.


1.2     Statement of the problem

Health surveys involving population representative samples of students and adolescents observed statistically significant positive correlations between exercise participation and academic performance. However, none of these studies assessed academic performance with standardized educational tests.

This study found minimal studies which correlate the involvement of students in exercise and their wellbeing. Slade et al (2017) in their study have found that changes in exercise use before an exam were positively associated with changes in exam performance. To our knowledge, no studies have found that exercise is unfavorable or adversely affects academic achievement, even if exercise is not always found to improve achievement. Hence this study was carried out in order to evaluate the correlation between the effects of exercise on the wellbeing of students in the University of Ibadan.


1.3     Objectives of the study

  • Main objective

The main objective of this study is to examine the predictive effects of exercise on the wellbeing of undergraduate students in the university of Ibadan.

  • Specific objectives

Specifically, the objectives of this study are to;

  1. Examine the perception of students on the perception of exercise.
  2. Examine the various kinds of exercise carried out by students.
  3. Examine the effects of exercise on academic performance.


1.4     Research questions

The following research questions were drafted by the researcher to serve as guide to the execution of this study:

  1. What is the perception of students on the perception of exercise.
  2. What is the various kinds of exercise carried out by students
  3. What are the effects of exercise on academic performance


1.5     Hypothesis

HI: Exercise has an effect on the wellbeing of a student.

HO: Exercise has no effect on the wellbeing of a student.


1.6     Significance of the study

The debate over time spent on exercise during school hours has shifted from students’ health to students’ academic achievement.  Despite serious health concerns regarding students in Nigeria, policy makers have increasingly focused on school as a place for academic learning in certain core subjects (Ravitch, 2010).  Educators and administrators may justify the use of school time for exercise by providing evidence that such activity improves students’ performance in core courses.

This study will be beneficial to students as it will help them understand the effects of exercise on their wellbeing. This will expose students to different kinds of exercises and how the exercises affect them mentally.

This study will also be of significance to researchers and academicians that will be carrying out research in topics relating to this present study. This study will therefore serve as a study material for further study.


1.7     Scope of the study

This research was conducted to examine the predictive effect of exercise on wellbeing and to evaluate correlation between the frequency of physical activities performed and its influence on the academic performance and cognitive activity of students. This study was carried out in the University of Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.


1.8     Limitation of the study

A research, striving to unearth hitherto unknown realities would have been an exciting and enjoyable exercise, but this turned out to be very rigorous.

The researcher was massively handicapped by lack of textbooks that adequately addressed the topic. Thereby, secondary data were as difficult to obtain as primary data that led into the jungle of the unexpected. The field exercise revealed a lukewarm attitude towards research matters and point to the fact that some Nigerians are less interested in anything that does not involve cash flow. Jocularly or otherwise, some would ask “What’s in it for me?” This required extra explanation and persuasion before questionnaires are accepted for completion.

Time was another area where difficulty was experienced. This is because; a research work of this magnitude was carried out simultaneously with class room work and other personal obligations.


1.9     Organization of the study

This study is structured into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research question, hypothesis, scope of the study and innovative aspect of the research. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Desai, I. K., Kurpad, A.V., Chomitz, V.R., & Thomas, T. (2015). Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged students. PLoS ONE 10(3):  e0122487. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122487

Ravitch, D. (2010). The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York: Basic Books.

Slade AN, Kies SM (2017) The relationship between academic performance and recreation use among firstyear students. Med Educ Online. 20:25105.

Tremblay, M. S., Inman, J. W., & Willms, J. D. (2000). The relationship between physical activity, self-esteem, and academic achievement in 12-year-old students. Pediatric Exercise Science, 12, 312-323.


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