This study was a survey of the availability and usage of contemporary art teaching and learning materials in Colleges of Education in Kaduna and Plateau States. Teachers in Nigeria over the years have been using the conventional instructional materials but modern ones are better and more effective. Information and communication technology (ICT) has made communication easy and has improved media instructional materials which art teachers should be exposed to in Colleges of Education. Teachers are expected to be conversant with the use of these contemporary instructional material. The aim of the study was to assess the availability and usage of contemporary instructional materials in colleges of education in Kaduna and Plateau states with the following objectives. To assess the types of modern instructional materials in Colleges of Education in the above mentioned states. Determine the adequacy and use of such audio visual and electronic resources in the Colleges of Education and to assess the problems teachers and students face in the use of audio visual and electronic resources. The population for the study consisted of a total number of 174 art students and 45 art teachers making a total of 219 from the four colleges of education being covered in the study. The instrument used for data collection consisted of two sets of questionnaires, they are Art Teachers Inventory Questionnaire (ATIQ) and Art Students Inventory Questionnaire (ASIQ). The major findings of the study indicate; Inadequate modern instructional materials in Colleges of education in Kaduna and Plateau states, the adequacy and use of such instructional materials for teaching Fine and Applied Arts was far below average as the modern materials were not available, Teachers competence on the use of modern instructional materials was more than that of students who largely depended on the colleges to provide them. Teachers and students face some problems which include lack of availability of modern instructional materials. Based on the findings, there is need for all stake holders in the educational sector to provide adequate modern materials. Institution should organize professional workshops and seminars that will guide the teachers on the use of contemporary materials.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Titled Page – – – – – – – – – – i Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii Certification – – – – – – – – – – iii Dedication — – – – – – – – iv Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – v Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vi Tables of contents – – – – – – – – – vii List of tables – – – – – – – – – – ix Abbreviations and symbols – – – – – – – – x Chapter One 1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 1 1.1 Background of the study- – – – – – – – 1 1.2 Statement of the problem – – – – – – – 4 1.3 Objectives of the study – – – – – – – 4 1.4 Research questions – – – – – – – – 5 1.5 Scope of the study – – – – – – – – 5 1.6 Significance of the study – – – – – – – 5 1.7 Operational Definition of terms – – – – – – 6 1.8 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 7 Chapter Two 2.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 8 2.1 The concept of Art and Fine Art – – – – – – 8 2.2 The concept of instructional materials – – – – – 11 2.2.1 Types of contemporary instructional materials – – – – 12 2.3 Types of audiovisual aids used in teaching – – – – – 13 2.4 The role of contemporary instructional materials – – – – 14 2.5 Provision of contemporary instructional materials in schools – – 18 2.5 The effect on the use of contemporary instructional materials on students – 19 2.6 Problems of the use of contemporary Instructional materials in schools – 20 2.7 Contemporary instructional materials and the development of creativity in art – 22 2.8 Improvisation of instructional materials – – – – – 26 2.9 Preservation of instructional materials – – – – – 27
2.10 Empirical studies – – – – – – – – 28 2.11 Summary of literature review and uniqueness of the study – – – 20 Chapter Three 3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 32 3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – – 32 3.2 Population and Sample – – – – – – – 33 3.3 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – – – 35 3.4 Procedure for Data Collection – – – – – – 36 3.5 Data Analysis Techniques – – – – – – – 36 Chapter Four 4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 37 4.2 Personal Bio-Data of Fine and Applied Art Teachers and students – – 37 4.3 Major Findings – – – – – – – – 44 4.4 Discussions – – – – – – – – – 44 Chapter Five 5.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 46 5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 46 5.2 Conclusion based on findings – – – – – – 46 5.3 Recommendations based on findings – – – – – 47 References – – – – – – – – – 49 Appendix I — – – – – – – – – 53 Appendix II – – – – – – – – – 54 Appendix III – – – – – – – – – 55 Appendix IV – – – – – – – – – 60
1.1 Background of the Study
The emergence and production of instructional materials had undergone several reviews and processes by different professionals in various fields of learning. These experts have developed and produced such materials in line with the needs of their areas of specialization and the resources available in their locality. Experience over the years has shown that teachers have been depending on excessive use of words to express and to convey ideas or facts in the teaching-learning process. This practice is termed the “chalk-talk” method. In modern times, advances in technology have made it possible to produce materials and devices that could be used to minimize the teachers talking all the time, make the message clearer, more interesting and easier for the learners to assimilate. (Onasanya, 2008). According to Soetan (2010), graphics materials include charts, posters, sketches, cartoons, graphs and drawings. Graphics communicate facts and ideas clearly through combination of drawings, words and pictures. The use of graphics in teaching creates greater understanding of the materials being studied. They also help learners to visualize the whole concepts holistically showing the relationships with one another. The role of graphic materials in visual communication is therefore very unique and significant.
Olumorin (2009) in the simplest term defines instructional materials as those materials that help the teacher to teach with ease and the learners to learn without stress. The author explained that instructional materials appeal to the senses of seeing, touching, smelling, feeling and hearing. They include projected, non projected audio visual, printed and others. It also includes three dimensional objects that are produced through locally sourced materials, programme instruction, and instruction package. Natoli (2011) states that instructional materials are also referred to as Audio Visual (AV or A/V) which works with both sound and visual components. The production or use of such works or equipment to create and present works
such as slide, tape presentation, firm and television programme are examples of audio visual presentation.
To enhance teaching and learning process, it has become pertinent on the part of teachers to employ the use of contemporary instructional materials. This is because of the great role they play in teaching and learning situation. Ajidagba (2004) explains that instructional materials are very essential for teaching art because a high percentage of what is learned in the arts is abstract. Thus such abstract contents are better explained through the use of instructional materials. They also introduce to the class objects that cannot be physically brought to the class. Example, air plane as an example of “means” of transportation in social studies and objects that are too tiny to see with the naked eyes or observe their function.
Farrant in Olorukooba (2010) outlined some of the instructional materials which have been in use over the past 70 years. They include; the radio, record player, tape recorders, television sets, slide and film strips pictures, charts, diagrams, globes. models, flannel boards, over head projections, cinematography films, open reel projectors, maps etc. Most of these instructional materials are not being popularly used these days in schools and colleges. This is as a result of the recent technological advancement and the great achievements made in the field of educational technology. Contemporary instructional materials that are used in the educational field, include the computers, video cameras, digital cameras, cam coders, digital tablets, i-pad, compass, power point presentation packages, the teaching machines, flannel boards, models, magic boards, magnetic boards, electronic learning devise, the internet with newer soft ware, like Corel draw 8-15, Adobe Cs3-Cs5 which consist of photo shop, instant artist, dream weaver, micro media, flash and a host of others. These contemporary instructional materials have more advantages over the former ones mentioned earlier. The use of these audio visual and electronic resources have the potential for enhancing students’ learning if adequately used. The role of these resources in teaching and learning is considered most important and widely-discussed
issues in education policy.
In education, teaching and learning using these instructional materials has influenced the design of various curricular pragramme nationally and globally in the launching ‘ of different educational programmes. The modern technology for example, allows learners’ interaction with the computer screen rather than the teacher alone. Through the computer network, learners are able to communicate with the instruction on the material and can discuss assignments involved. Learners also can either attend lectures or do distant programme online. Current technologies in e-learning such as Aula-Net tend to provide group learning where individuals share ideas on line (Fulks, 2000). It has also helped in moving from the elitist advantage learning to mass education through digital media where more learners could get access to education for both campus and distant learning students (Kennedy, 2001).
The philosophy of the Nigerian Certificate in Education programme on Fine and Applied Arts is to provide academic and professional training for NCE teachers (NCCE, 2003). It aims at developing students’ aesthetic perception, artistic talents and expression as well as stimulates interest and enquiries in the practical and theoretical areas which affect the teaching of art in the primary and junior secondary schools.
The objectives of the NCCE programme apart from emphasizing on the training of professional art teachers, is also to help them on the effective use of teaching aids. The specific objectives of teaching Fine Arts are as follows;
a. Equipping and providing the students with knowledge, understanding and skills in Fine and Applied Arts.
b. To equipped students with the necessary knowledge and skills for the promotion of Nigerian and world’s artistic and cultural heritage.
c. To develop in the pre-service teachers the ability to communicate effectively through
the arts and proper use of instructional materials.
d. Prepare teachers education at the tertiary level. (NCCE, 2003).
1.2 Statement of the Problem Over the years, teachers have used conventional instructional materials with some measure of success, but modern ones driven by Information and Communication Technology (ICT) would seem to be more effective. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has made communication easy and improved the media of instructional materials, which art teachers should be exposed to, in the Colleges of Education. Teachers are expected to be conversant with the use of such modern instructional materials, unfortunately, this do not appear so. This might be because such facilities are not available and where available, some teachers might not be competent enough to use them. The complexity of some ICT equipment tends to also frighten teachers, who have no practical experience of them. Hence the ICT devices-supplied to some schools, are grossly under used. The Fine Arts lecturers in Colleges of Education seem not to have been left out in this worrisome trend. Some teachers in the Colleges of Education do not have ICT skills and therefore, there is a poor use of ICT. Therefore the problem of the study is the availability and use of modern instructional materials in Kaduna and Plateau states. 1.3 Objectives of the study The aim of this study was to assess the availability and the usage of contemporary instructional materials in Colleges of Education in Kaduna and Plateau States. The objectives of the study are to:
i. Assess the modern instructional materials available in colleges of education of the above mentioned states.
ii. Determine the adequacy and use of such audiovisual and electronic resources in these colleges of education.
iii. Ascertain the competencies of teachers and students who make use of the modern materials.
iv. Identify the problems that teachers and students’ face in the use of audio visuals and electronic resources in colleges of education in Kaduna and Plateau states, respectively.
1.4 Research Questions
1. What are the available types of audio visual and electronic resources in the Colleges of Education?
2. What is the perception of the Art Students concerning adequate use of audio visual and electronic resources in the Colleges?
3. What is the teachers’ competence on the use of audio visual and electronic resources?
4. What are the problems of using audio visuals and electronic resources to teach fine and applied arts?
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study focused on availability and usage of modern instructional materials in Federal College of Education, Zaria, Kaduna State, College of Education, Gidan Waya; Federal College of Education, Pankshin and College of Education, Gindiri. Only Fine and Applied Arts Departments will be considered, and both teachers and students will be involved.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be very useful to the proprietors, teachers and students in the Colleges of Education in the sense that where such contemporary instructional materials are lacking, they will be provided so as to enhance effective teaching and learning. The teachers also will benefit greatly from the findings and recommendations of the study because where
such contemporary instructional materials are not available, it will affect teaching and learning. Students stand as great beneficiaries to this study since the availability and effective use of contemporary instructional materials can make them better understand what they are being taught. The ministry of Education can also benefit from this study if they implement recommendations made by the researcher as this will greatly promote teaching and learning in schools.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms Availability: Means where something is present or ready for immediate use. Usage: Refers to the acting amount or mode of using a tool, equipment, etc. Contemporary: – This means happening or existing now or at the particular time one is referring to. The researcher wants to use the time space of the 1990’s to date. It from this period that Nigeria started witnessing the importation of these new instructional materials in our educational system. Instructional Materials: – In this study instructional materials refer to materials used by the teachers to aid in teaching successfully and efficiently. They are those materials that help the teacher to teach with ease and the learners to learn without stress. They appeal to the senses of seeing, touching, smelling, feeling and hearing. Instructional materials are also referred to as teaching aids and sometimes as audio-visual aids. Examples of instructional materials include:- pictures, charts, diagrams, globes, models, flannel boards, radio, record player, tape recorders, television sets, slides and film strips, cameras, projectors, computers, etc. Adobe Photoshop: – It is a software used in graphic art for editing of pictures. Cinematography: – often shortened to cine’, is that branch of photography which deals with motion pictures whether made by professionals or amateurs. It is concerned therefore with the design, development, and production of all motion film material and the
equipment used with it. Digital Tablet: – Is a small phone like computer designed mostly in square forms. A smaller version of an i-pad which uses devices such as sim cards and modems. Flannel Board: – A board with soft twilled wool with a loosed texture and a slightly napped surface used to mount printed or drawn diagrams. Hardware: – Is a colloquial term applied to manufactured pieces of audio – visual equipment such as radios, recorders, record players, cameras, computers, Television sets, projectors, etc. Instant Artist: – Is a software which contains different designs used by artists in producing their works.
1.8 Theoretical Framework The role of audio visual or use of television graphics could best be explained by the social cognitive theory. The theory is of the postulation that people learn thorough observation and mass media, especially through the television which is all about observation. Baran (2002) on social cognitive theory argues that: “People model (copy) the behaviours they see and that modeling happens in two ways. The first is imitation, the direct replication of an observed behavior. The second form of modeling is identification, a special form of imitation in which observers do not copy exactly what they have seen but make a more generalized but related response.
This theory supports the fact that the use of audio visuals is another way of stimulating learning among children and other younger folks. The research agrees with this theory because the effective use of electronic materials and electronic resources have been discovered by many art educators to help remote, sustain learning and even motivate creativity in students.
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